Next Article in Journal
Effects of Visual Grading on Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.) Seedlings Planted in Two Shelterwood Stands on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, USA
Previous Article in Journal
Using Plant Temperature to Evaluate the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Soil Moisture Deficit
Open AccessArticle

Maturation in Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora Stock Plants: Effects of Pruning Height on Shoot Production, Adventitious Rooting Capacity, Stem Anatomy, and Auxin and Abscisic Acid Concentrations

1
Embrapa Florestas, Colombo, PR 83411-00, Brazil
2
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia
3
Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD 4558, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jarmo K. Holopainen and Eric J. Jokela
Forests 2015, 6(10), 3763-3778; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6103763
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015

Abstract

Repeated pruning of stock plants is a common approach to delaying maturation and maintaining the propagation ability of cuttings, but little is known about the hormonal or anatomical basis for this phenomenon. We tested the effect of two different stock-plant pruning heights (15 cm and 30 cm) on shoot production, rooting capacity and rooted cutting vigour of six clones of the eucalypt Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora. We determined whether differences in rooting potential were related to indole-3-acetic (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, or the degree of lignification or sclerification, of the cuttings. Maintaining stock plants at 15 cm height sometimes reduced the production of stem cuttings. However, it often increased the ensuing percentage of cuttings that formed roots, with mean rooting across all clones increasing from 30%–53%. Therefore, the number of rooted cuttings produced by short stock plants was similar to, or higher than, the number produced by tall stock plants. Cuttings from shorter stock plants had faster root elongation and occasionally greater root dry mass, shoot dry mass or shoot height than cuttings from tall stock plants. These differences in rooting potential were generally not related to differences in IAA or ABA concentrations of the cuttings or to differences in their stem anatomy. Pruning at the lower height was more effective in maintaining clonal juvenility, supporting previous findings that stock plant maturation is a limiting factor in clonal propagation of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora.
Keywords: adventitious roots; Eucalyptus; juvenility; plant hormones; propagation adventitious roots; Eucalyptus; juvenility; plant hormones; propagation

1. Introduction

Clonal forestry comprises the process of clonal timber production from candidate plus-tree selection, germplasm capture and clonal field testing through to clonal tree propagation, plantation establishment and site management [1]. Clonal tree propagation, as part of a clonal forestry program, aims to maximize productivity, quality and uniformity in plantations by capturing the total genetic variance [2,3]. However, maturation of clonal stock plants can limit the adventitious rooting of cuttings and reduce the subsequent growth of plantation trees [4,5,6]. Maturation-related loss of rooting competence is a major limiting factor in woody plant propagation [7,8] and, consequently, in the establishment of clonal forestry plantations.
Clonal selection typically occurs when trees are approaching their mature phase, and so efficient clonal propagation relies on the ability to produce rejuvenated stock plants of the selected clones or to maintain clonal archives of juvenile stock plants throughout the period of clonal field testing [9,10]. One of the most common strategies to maintain juvenility and delay maturation is to repeatedly prune the stock plants, or serially propagate cuttings from the stock plants, at a low height [1,11,12]. Even then, propagation ability within clones can vary because of maturation- or morphologically-related topophysic effects; i.e., positional effects within the stock plant on the subsequent rooting and growth of cuttings [2,5]. Topophysic effects can occur at very fine scales; e.g., rooting capacity of cuttings varies from the first to the fifteenth node of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill seedlings [13] and rooting capacity of in vitro shoots varies from the first to the fifth node of Corymbia torelliana (F.Muell.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson × C. citriodora (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson seedlings [14].
The hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is involved in regulating many aspects of plant development from embryogenesis to senescence, and is one of the most important hormones involved in root initiation [15,16]. Another hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), affects root elongation, lateral root formation [17] and the biosynthesis and activity of IAA [18]. IAA and ABA may interact in regulating rooting potential [19]. However, we have demonstrated recently that topophysic effects during the rooting and vigour of C. torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings are related to the degree of lignification and sclerification of the stem rather than the concentrations of IAA or ABA in the cuttings [20]. That research compared dual-node cuttings from the first 10 nodes of juvenile seedlings (i.e., ortets). However, cuttings are normally harvested from larger stock plants that have been raised from cuttings (i.e., ramets). Stock plants of Eucalyptus and Corymbia in Australia are often maintained by pruning at ~30-cm height [21,22,23,24] whereas eucalypt nurseries in Brazil use shorter stock plants to maintain clonal juvenility [1,2,25,26,27,28].
In this study, we compared the production, rooting and vigour of cuttings from C. torelliana × C. citriodora ramet stock plants that were maintained at two different heights (15 cm and 30 cm). We assessed whether differences in propagation potential were related to differences in IAA and ABA concentrations or stem anatomy. An understanding of the extent of maturation effects in eucalypt stock plants, and their underlying hormonal or anatomical bases, will assist in developing efficient propagation systems for establishing clonal plantations.

2. Experimental Section

2.1. Stock Plant and Cutting Production

Six clones of C. torelliana × C. citriodora subsp. variegata with varying rooting capacity were selected from our previous micropropagation and stock plant studies [14,29,30]. Briefly, the clones were produced by germinating seeds of a full-sibling family (1CT2-013 × 1CV2-109) in vitro and proliferating shoots in media containing half- or full-strength Murashige and Skoog medium [14,29]. Shoots were converted into plantlets after 18 months, and these were maintained as ex vitro stock plants in 1.6-L pots for 9 months by pruning at a height of ~30 cm. Fresh rooted cuttings were then produced from the ex vitro stock plants and these were raised as nursery stock plants in 1.6-L pots for a further 9 months [30]. The stock plants of each clone were then divided into two treatments by pruning at one of two different heights: “Tall” (pruned at ~30 cm) or “Short” (pruned at ~15 cm). The experiment comprised eight stock plants per treatment per clone, spaced at 26 plants per m2 on a glasshouse bench at the University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia (26°43′01″ S 153°03′44″ E). The potting mixture was the eucalypt seedling mix described previously [22,23]. Each stock plant received a weekly application of 150 mL of Flowfeed BM7 foliar fertilizer (Growforce, Acacia Ridge, Australia) at a rate of 10 g fertilizer L−1.
Cuttings were harvested from each stock plant on 12 occasions over the following 6 months. Three-node cuttings were prepared by removing the shoot apex, dissecting the shoot into cuttings of 3–5 cm length, and pruning 50% of the length of each leaf from each cutting. The cuttings were not treated with auxin. The cuttings were set in 70 mL plastic Hyco tubes containing a 75/25 (v/v) mixture of perlite and shredded pine bark, supplemented with 3 kg of 8–9 month slow-release OsmocoteTM fertilizer and 1 kg of gypsum per m3 [22,23]. The cuttings were placed in a translucent white polyethylene chamber and misted for 10 s every 10 min from 0600–1800 h. The cuttings remained under mist irrigation for up to 60 days, depending on the season.
Cuttings from harvest 2 (setting 1: “S1”, 10 July 2012) and harvest 12 (setting 2: “S2”, 20 December 2012) were used to assess root protrusion from the propagation tubes, percentage of cuttings that formed roots, and the growth of rooted cuttings. The percentage of tubes with protruding roots was recorded every 4 days from 36–60 days post-setting in S1 and from 16–36 days post-setting in S2. The percentage of cuttings with roots, as well as the root dry mass, shoot dry mass, root:shoot ratio and height of rooted cuttings, were measured at 60 days post-setting in S1 and 40 days post-setting in S2. The number of cuttings produced per stock plant (stock plant productivity) was recorded at each of the 12 harvests and converted into cutting production per m2 per month for comparison with other studies. Plant multiplication rate for S1 and S2 was determined by multiplying stock plant productivity × the percentage of cuttings that formed roots.

2.2. Hormone Analyses

A sample of cuttings of the same morphology was harvested concurrently in both S1 and S2 for hormone analysis. Three replicates of four cuttings per clone were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and then freeze dried for 36 h prior to storage at −80 °C. Plant material was then ground to a powder using a Mixer Mill MM200 tissue homogenizer (Retsch, Haan, Germany) and weighed into a 5 mL vial. Extraction and purification was adapted from a previous method [31]. Ground material was suspended in 70% (v/v) methanol (15 mL·g−1) with 0.1 mg·L−1 butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Then, 10 µL of 10−5 mol per 10 mL IAA D7 (indole-2,4,5,6,7-d5-3-acetic-2,2-d2 acid) (Sigma-Aldrich, Sydney, Australia) was added as a deuterated internal standard to a final quantity of 10−8 mol to corroborate chromatographic retention times and quantification.
The vials were flushed with N2 gas and stored overnight at 4 °C. The supernatant was transferred into a test tube, centrifuged for 5 min, transferred to a 25 mL round bottom flask and evaporated under vacuum to an aqueous residue. The solution pH was adjusted to 8–9 with 0.5 M sodium hydroxide and the water layer was extracted twice with 1 mL ethyl acetate. The pH was readjusted to 2.5 with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and the solution was partitioned three times into 1 mL diethyl ether with 0.1 mg·mL−1 BHT, passed through anhydrous sodium sulfate, and evaporated under N2 gas to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 300 µL dichloromethane, 15 µL of derivatising agent [N–(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, with 1% TBDMSCl] (Sigma-Aldrich, Sydney, Australia) was added, and the sample was stored for 1 h at 65 °C.
The sample was analyzed by GC-MS (Clarus 580 and Clarus SQ8S, Perkin Elmer) and the hormone concentrations calculated in ng·g−1 dry mass. The compound signals were monitored at m/z 239, 232 and 190 with retention times around 14.47, 14.55 and 19.57 min for IAA D7, natural IAA and ABA, respectively. Peak identification was based on retention time and mass spectra. Spiking of the sample with the standard solution of IAA D7 was used to determine the peak area ratio for each hormone and to calculate the natural hormone concentrations in the samples.

2.3. Stem Anatomy

An additional sample of cuttings of the same morphology was harvested concurrently in both S1 and S2 for anatomical observation. The cuttings were processed using a method adapted from our previous research [32]. Transverse stem sections of 5 mm length were collected from the base of cuttings, fixed in a solution of 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1 M phosphate buffer, and stored at 4 °C. The samples were then washed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer and processed under vacuum in a Shandon Excelsior ES Tissue Processor (Thermo Electron Corp., Marietta, OH, USA). Dehydration in alcohol was in six stages of 1 h each, followed by clearing in xylene in three 1-h stages, and infiltration with wax for 2 h. The samples were transverse sectioned at 8 µm using a UYD-335 Automated Microtome (ProSciTech, Thuringowa, Australia), stained with safranin and fast green [33], and mounted with Permount medium (ProSciTech). Sections were examined with an Eclipse E200 light microscope (Nikon, Sydney, Australia).

2.4. Experimental Design and Statistical Analyses

Ten cuttings were allocated randomly to each of five replicates per treatment per clone in both settings (S1 and S2). Data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA within treatments and t-test within clones because extensive interactions between clone and treatment were detected by 2-way ANOVA. Protruding roots and dry mass data were log transformed and rooting data was square root–log transformed when variance was heterogeneous. Post-hoc Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests were performed only when significant differences (p < 0.05) among clones were detected by ANOVA. Pearson’s correlations were also calculated between all variables in each setting.

3. Results

Cuttings from short stock plants often had faster root protrusion from the propagation tubes than cuttings from tall stock plants (Table 1). Cuttings from short stock plants also often produced adventitious roots at a higher frequency than cuttings from tall stock plants (Table 2). Mean rooting percentages (across all clones) from short stock plants (53.3% and 52.3% for S1 and S2, respectively) were higher than from tall stock plants (30.0% and 30.5% for S1 and S2, respectively) (Table 2). Pruning stock plants at the low height accelerated root protrusion and increased rooting percentages in low-, medium-, and high-rooting clones (Table 1 and Table 2). The correlations between root protrusion and final rooting percentage were significant (p < 0.05) at all evaluation times in both settings; i.e., from 36–60 days and from 16–36 days post-setting in S1 and S2, respectively.
Table 1. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on the percentage of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings with roots protruding from the base of the propagation tube in setting 1 and setting 2. Means with different letters within a time point are significantly different (t-test; p < 0.05; n = 5).
Table 1. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on the percentage of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings with roots protruding from the base of the propagation tube in setting 1 and setting 2. Means with different letters within a time point are significantly different (t-test; p < 0.05; n = 5).
ClonePruning HeightSetting 1Setting 2
Time after Setting (days)
36404448525660162024283236
29Tall0 a0 a0 a0 b4 b4 b6 b0 a2 a2 a4 a4 a4 b
Short0 a8 a12 a18 a24 a24 a26 a2 a4 a8 a10 a16 a22 a
67Tall2 a8 a10 a12 b16 b16 b16 b12 a14 a18 b26 a34 a36 a
Short0 a10 a16 a26 a32 a32 a34 a20 a34 a42 a42 a42 a42 a
83Tall0 a2 a4 a6 a14 a14 a14 a0 b0 b14 a16 a22 a22 a
Short0 a0 a6 a12 a22 a22 a26 a20 a22 a22 a26 a26 a26 a
156Tall4 a6 a22 a40 a50 a50 a54 a0 b2 b12 b16 b26 b32 b
Short6 a12 a22 a30 a36 a36 a42 a30 a58 a68 a72 a74 a74 a
160Tall0 a0 a0 b0 b4 b4 b4 b4 b4 b10 b10 b10 b18 b
Short6 a10 a14 a22 a28 a28 a28 a20 a40 a40 a44 a50 a50 a
163Tall4 a12 a26 a28 a40 a40 a40 a18 a28 b30 b34 b34 b34 a
Short8 a16 a30 a40 a 58 a58 a60 a34 a48 a48 a52 a54 a54 a
In most cases, the pruning height of stock plants did not affect the shoot dry mass, root dry mass or height of rooted cuttings (data not presented). However, short stock plants of clone 29 produced rooted cuttings with higher root dry mass than did tall stock plants in S1, short stock plants of clones 29, 163 and 160 produced rooted cuttings with higher shoot dry mass than did tall stock plants in S1, and short stock plants of clone 83 produced taller rooted cuttings than did tall stock plants in S2. The pruning height of stock plants generally did not affect the root:shoot ratio (RSR) of rooted cuttings, although cuttings from short stock plants of clones 29 and 160 in S1 had lower RSR than cuttings from tall stock plants (Table 3).
Table 2. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on the percentage of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings with adventitious roots in setting 1 and setting 2. Means (±SE) with different capital letters within each pruning treatment, and different lower case letters within each clone, are significantly different (ANOVA and HSD test, or t-test; p < 0.05; n = 5).
Table 2. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on the percentage of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings with adventitious roots in setting 1 and setting 2. Means (±SE) with different capital letters within each pruning treatment, and different lower case letters within each clone, are significantly different (ANOVA and HSD test, or t-test; p < 0.05; n = 5).
ClonePruning HeightSetting 1Setting 2
29Tall6 ± 2 Db8 ± 4 Db
Short26 ± 5 Ca22 ± 4 Ca
67Tall20 ± 4 ABb40 ± 3 ABb
Short54 ± 9 Ba54 ± 2 Ba
83Tall20 ± 3 BCa28 ± 5 BCa
Short34 ± 7 Ca36 ± 2 Ca
156Tall74 ± 5 Ab54 ± 7 Ab
Short82 ± 4 Aa86 ± 2 Aa
160Tall6 ± 2 CDb17 ± 1 CDb
Short50 ± 4 Ba60 ± 3 Ba
163Tall54 ± 7 Bb36 ± 2 Bb
Short74 ± 6 Ba56 ± 5 Ba
MeanTall30.030.5
Short53.352.3
Table 3. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on root:shoot dry mass ratio of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora rooted cuttings in setting 1 and setting 2. Means (±SE) with different capital letters within each pruning treatment, and different lower case letters within each clone, are significantly different (ANOVA and HSD test, or t-test; p < 0.05; n = 5).
Table 3. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on root:shoot dry mass ratio of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora rooted cuttings in setting 1 and setting 2. Means (±SE) with different capital letters within each pruning treatment, and different lower case letters within each clone, are significantly different (ANOVA and HSD test, or t-test; p < 0.05; n = 5).
ClonePruning HeightSetting 1Setting 2
29Tall0.30 ± 0.01 Aa0.16 ± 0.00 Ba
Short0.24 ± 0.02 Ab0.15 ± 0.01 Aa
67Tall0.22 ± 0.04 Aa0.17 ± 0.01 Ba
Short0.21 ± 0.02 Aa0.20 ± 0.04 Aa
83Tall0.24 ± 0.02 Aa0.24 ± 0.03Aba
Short0.23 ± 0.03 Aa0.22 ± 0.03 Aa
156Tall0.24 ± 0.03 Aa0.19 ± 0.02 Ba
Short0.23 ± 0.02 Aa0.24 ± 0.04 Aa
160Tall0.31 ± 0.03 Aa0.30 ± 0.03 Aa
Short0.18 ± 0.03 Ab0.28 ± 0.04 Aa
163Tall0.23 ± 0.02 Aa0.20 ± 0.02 Ba
Short0.20 ± 0.02 Aa0.19 ± 0.00 Aa
MeanTall0.260.21
Short0.210.21
Stock plant productivity ranged from 141–1433 cuttings·m−2·month−1 depending on the clone, pruning height and harvest time, with productivity increasing across the six-month experimental period (Table 4). Short stock plants of clones 163, 156 and 67 had lower productivity than tall stock plants, whereas short stock plants of clone 160 had higher productivity than tall stock plants, at several harvest times (Table 4). Short stock plants of clones 29 and 83 sometimes had lower or higher productivity than tall stock plants, depending on the harvest time. Stock plant productivity was correlated (p < 0.05) with ABA concentration at the second harvest time (i.e., S1) and with IAA concentration at the twelfth harvest time (i.e., S2), but it was not correlated significantly with other variables.
Table 4. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora stock plant productivity (cuttings·m−2·month−1). Means with different letters within each collection are significantly different (t-test; p < 0.05; n = 8 stock plants).
Table 4. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora stock plant productivity (cuttings·m−2·month−1). Means with different letters within each collection are significantly different (t-test; p < 0.05; n = 8 stock plants).
ClonePruning HeightCollection
123456789101112Mean
29Tall243 a245 a298 a354 b658 a548 b919 a589 a897 a851 a858 a1,170 a560
Short177 b226 a201 b533 a423 b699 a533 b741 a780 a824 a692 b1,160 a514
67Tall259 a440 a255 a642 a580 a733 a793 a605 a917 a1,081 a1,190 a1,277 a631
Short141 b209 b154 b488 b474 b499 b676 a565 a680 b648 b903 b1,070 b453
83Tall141 b412 a252 a660 a557 a627 a867 a676 a728 a922 a1,248 a1,307 a584
Short185 a245 b217 a631 a460 a695 a559 b741 a780 a1,010 a917 b936 b552
156Tall262 a348 a293 a677 a571 a790 a787 a646 a713 a891 a925 a1,426 a598
Short280 a256 a192 b568 a562 a483 b650 a566 a614 a895 a644 b1,151 b507
160Tall151 b226 a142 b373 a418 a421 a426 b478 a577 a425 b686 a655 b364
Short190 a213 a226 a433 a324 a494 a594 a468 a669 a770 a657 a869 a438
163Tall277 a323 a396 a505 a761 a916 a923 a813 a1,073 a1,108 a1,112 a1,433 a709
Short151 b153 b230 b459 a450b431 b713 a646 a992 a800 b1,125 a1,237 a503
MeanTall2223322735355916727866358178801,0031,211574
Short1872172035184495506216217528258231,070494
Multiplication rate (i.e., stock plant productivity × rooting percentage) generally did not differ significantly between short and tall stock plants (Table 5). However, short stock plants of clone 29 provided a higher multiplication rate than tall stock plants in S1, and short stock plants of clone 160 provided a higher multiplication rate than tall stock plants in both S1 and S2. Multiplication rates ranged from 15–246 rooted cuttings m−2·month−1 in S1 and from 106–885 rooted cuttings m−2·month−1 in S2, depending on the clone. Multiplication rate was correlated (p < 0.05) with ABA concentration at the second harvest time (i.e., S1), with root dry mass at the twelfth harvest time (i.e., S2) and with root protrusion at both harvest times (S1 and S2), but it was not correlated significantly with other variables.
The pruning height of stock plants often affected the IAA or ABA concentration of C. torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings, although the effects varied between clones and settings (Table 6). Cuttings from short stock plants of clones 29 and 83 had lower IAA concentrations than cuttings from tall stock plants in S1, whereas cuttings from short stock plants of clones 163, 83 and 156 had higher IAA concentrations than cuttings from tall stock plants in S2. Mean IAA concentrations ranged from 331–771 ng·g−1 dry mass in S1 and from 224–445 ng·g−1 dry mass in S2. Cuttings from short stock plants of clones 83 and 67 in S1 and clone 67 in S2 had lower ABA concentrations than cuttings from tall stock plants, whereas cuttings from short stock plants of clone 160 in S1 and clones 163 and 156 in S2 had higher ABA concentrations than cuttings from tall stock plants. Mean ABA concentrations ranged from 88–345 ng·g−1 dry mass in S1 and from 99–329 ng·g−1 dry mass in S2 (Table 6). IAA and ABA concentrations were correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with each other in S1 but not in S2. Rooting characteristics and endogenous hormone concentrations were not correlated with each other in either setting (S1 or S2).
Table 5. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on multiplication rate (rooted cuttings m−2·month−1) of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora clones in setting 1 and setting 2. Means with different letters within each clone are significantly different (t-test; p < 0.05).
Table 5. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on multiplication rate (rooted cuttings m−2·month−1) of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora clones in setting 1 and setting 2. Means with different letters within each clone are significantly different (t-test; p < 0.05).
ClonePruning HeightSetting 1Setting 2
29Tall14.7 b93.6 a
Short58.7 a255.3 a
67Tall88.0 a510.9 a
Short113.4 a427.9 a
83Tall82.5 a365.8 a
Short83.3 a337.0 a
156Tall257.6 a770.2 a
Short210.1 a989.4 a
160Tall13.5 b112.0 b
Short106.6 a521.5 a
163Tall174.5 a516.0 a
Short113.4 a692.6 a
MeanTall105.1394.7
Short114.2537.2
Table 6. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings in setting 1 and setting 2. Means (±SE) with different capital letters within each pruning treatment, and different lower case letters within each clone, are significantly different (ANOVA and HSD test, or t-test; p < 0.05; n = 3).
Table 6. Effect of stock plant pruning height (Tall, 30 cm; Short, 15 cm) on free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings in setting 1 and setting 2. Means (±SE) with different capital letters within each pruning treatment, and different lower case letters within each clone, are significantly different (ANOVA and HSD test, or t-test; p < 0.05; n = 3).
ClonePruning HeightSetting 1Setting 2
Free IAA (ng·g−1 DM)ABA (ng·g−1 DM)Free IAA (ng·g−1 DM)ABA (ng·g−1 DM)
29Tall657 ± 31 ABa153 ± 3 CDa305 ± 9 BCa130 ± 8 BCa
Short414 ± 11 Cb151 ± 5 Ba294 ± 9 Da168 ± 24 Da
67Tall605 ± 28 Ba342 ± 24 Aa369 ± 27 ABa329 ± 12 ABa
Short624 ± 27 ABa195 ± 23 Ba445 ± 18 Aa225 ± 27 Ab
83Tall771 ± 26 Aa282 ± 26 ABa243 ± 11 CDb241 ± 24 CDa
Short599 ± 13 ABb149 ± 6 Bb396 ± 10 BCa166 ± 15 BCa
156Tall741 ± 5 ABa330 ± 30 Aa247 ± 16 CDb99 ± 8 CDb
Short668 ± 22 Ab345 ± 41 Aa360 ± 2 Ca267 ± 29 Ca
160Tall331 ± 40 Ca88 ± 4 Db400 ± 10 Aa169 ± 20 Aa
Short361 ± 38 Ca130 ± 3 Ba388 ± 5 BCa138 ± 9 BCa
163Tall448 ± 32 Ca197 ± 11 BCa224 ± 14 Db134 ± 2 Db
Short495 ± 45 BCa208 ± 5 Ba413 ± 9 ABa257 ± 4 ABa
The stems of cuttings from short and tall C. torelliana × C. citriodora stock plants exhibited similar anatomy, irrespective of the clone and setting. Stems had a central pith region, surrounded by vascular tissue containing internal phloem, xylem, cambium and external phloem arranged in a circular pattern. This was surrounded by the cortical tissue and epidermis (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Stem anatomy of cuttings from Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora clone 160 after stock plants were pruned at tall (30 cm, a) or short (15 cm, b) height. Scale bars = 100 µm. Pi: Pith, iPh: internal phloem, Xy: xylem, ePh: external phloem, Co: cortex.
Figure 1. Stem anatomy of cuttings from Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora clone 160 after stock plants were pruned at tall (30 cm, a) or short (15 cm, b) height. Scale bars = 100 µm. Pi: Pith, iPh: internal phloem, Xy: xylem, ePh: external phloem, Co: cortex.
Forests 06 03763 g001

4. Discussion

Maintaining stock plants of C. torelliana × C. citriodora at the lower height of 15 cm sometimes reduced the production of stem cuttings but it very often increased the ensuing percentage of cuttings that formed roots. As a result, short stock plants had a similar or higher multiplication rate than tall stock plants. Mean rooting percentages for cuttings from the tall stock plants (30%) were comparable to those from nursery stock plants of C. torelliana × C. citriodora that were pruned at the same height (30 cm) in previous studies; i.e., 30% [32], 31% [30], 34% [34] and 46% [21]. In contrast, mean rooting percentages for cuttings from the short stock plants (53%) were closer to those from cuttings harvested directly from 10-node seedlings (61%) [20]. Clonal storage under minimal-growth conditions at 14 °C (when compared with conventional nursery archiving) also increases, from 31%–47%, the subsequent rooting frequency of cuttings from C. torelliana × C. citriodora stock plants [30]. These results indicate that maintaining stock plants at the lower height of 15 cm increased rooting by reducing the maturation of C. torelliana × C. citriodora shoots.
Gradients in maturation within plants strongly influence propagation capacity in several species [14,35], with different cutting positions affecting the shoot morphology, rooting ability, and subsequent growth of rooted cuttings [13,35,36,37,38]. Rooting ability of cuttings generally decreases from the basal to the apical part of trees [9,10,39,40,41]. Small differences in shoot position (i.e., ~15 cm), due to the different stock plant heights in the current study, affected both the speed of root protrusion from propagation tubes and the percentage of cuttings that forms roots. Root protrusion was used primarily to assess the rooting vigor of cuttings although it has also been used as a convenient and reliable predictor of final rooting percentages [27]. The consistent correlations between root protrusion at all assessment dates and the final rooting percentage support the use of root protrusion as a forecasting tool in the production of C. torelliana × C. citriodora rooted cuttings. In most cases, the positive effects of a lower stock plant height on root protrusion were not reflected in differences in the root dry mass, shoot dry mass or height of rooted cuttings. However, shorter stock plants did, occasionally, produce larger rooted cuttings than taller stock plants. This supports the conclusion that maturation can increase with increasing distance from the base of the plant and that maturation can affect the growth of rooted cuttings [4,7,42,43].
Maturation and topophysic effects have often been attributed to gradients in cellular activity, lignification, sclerification, or the concentrations of plant hormones or assimilates along the stem axis [9,44]. The effects on root formation in the current study were not the result of differences in IAA or ABA concentrations of cuttings from the stock plants of different heights. Endogenous auxin levels are often pivotal in the rooting process of plants [16,45,46,47] but rooting potential and cutting vigor were not correlated with IAA or ABA concentrations of C. torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings. These results accord with findings from other woody plants including Castanea sativa Mill., Syringa vulgaris L., Prunus persica L., P. cerasus L. × P. canescens Bois and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. [48,49,50]. They are also similar to recent results from the 10-node seedlings of C. torelliana × C. citriodora, where varying rooting capacity among the nodes was poorly related to differences in IAA or ABA concentrations [20]. Tissue response to auxin may be regulated by other factors such as the sensitivity of cells to the auxin signal and the concentration of rooting inhibitors in the base of cuttings [48,51].
Differences in the rooting capacity of C. torelliana × C. citriodora cuttings in the current study were not associated with differences in stem anatomy. Sclerenchyma often forms outside the site of adventitious root formation as the stem develops [33,44], and rooting capacity sometimes declines as the continuity or number of cell layers of this sclerenchyma ring increases [52,53,54]. The rooting capacity of cuttings from 10-node seedlings of C. torelliana × C. citriodora is related to tissue lignification and sclerification, with cuttings from the lower-capacity basal nodes being more lignified and sclerified than cuttings from the higher-capacity apical nodes [20]. In the present study, however, cuttings that arose from the pruned C. torelliana × C. citriodora stock plants of different heights shared similar levels of lignification and displayed very little sclerification. This demonstrates that regular pruning (at approximately fortnightly intervals in this study) provided fresh shoots with suitable morphology for adventitious root formation.
The effectiveness of continuous pruning in maintaining the juvenility of stock plants has varied among previous studies, most of which have been conducted on conifer species. Juvenility can often be maintained in continuously pruned hedges [11,55,56] while, in other cases, long-term pruning does little to alleviate maturation [11,57] and rooting declines with increasing stock plant age [58,59,60]. Very few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of continuous pruning in maintaining the juvenility of hardwood species [6,30]. Shoot production, adventitious rooting capacity and root vigor are considered markers of juvenility [7,8,28,41,46,61,62,63,64], and our results suggest that juvenility is maintained over a six-month period by continuous pruning of C. torelliana × C. citriodora stock plants at 15-cm height.
The ability to increase the production of stem cuttings across sequential harvests from 15-cm or 30-cm stock plants indicates that this type of intensive nursery system can maintain adequate plant condition for shoot production. The low initial productivity (seen in the first three collections) is common and may be related to adaptation of the ramet to the stock plant management system [61,62] and to seasonal effects on shoot production [22,23,28,65,66]. Stock plant productivity is also dependent on the growing system which, in the case of commercial Eucalyptus propagation, is often semi-hydroponic [1]. The same growing system as the present study (i.e., pots and potting mix) has been used previously for C. citriodora stock plants [22], achieving similar stock plant productivity once allowances for differences in stock plant density are considered. The calculation of multiplication rates is important to verify the effectiveness of the adopted cloning system, combining both stem cutting production and rooting percentage to determine overall productivity. Lower pruning tended to provide fewer stem cuttings but higher rooting percentages and, consequently, there was a balance—or sometimes an increase—in the multiplication rate. The lower pruning system also has advantages in reducing the amount of labor and nursery space required for producing rooted cuttings, thus lowering production costs [1].

5. Conclusions

Maturation effects were evident in the management of C. torelliana × C. citriodora stock plants, with a relatively small difference of 15 cm in plant height having significant effects on the rooting potential and vigour of cuttings. These effects were not related to the endogenous IAA and ABA concentrations of cuttings, nor were they related to differences in the degree of lignification or sclerification of cuttings. Regular pruning of stock plants maintained vegetative propagation ability in this hybrid for a duration similar to that of large-scale eucalypt nurseries that utilize a virtual clonal hedge production system [2]. The amenability of C. torelliana × C. citriodora to cutting propagation has been an impediment to its establishment in clonal plantations, partly because commercial nurseries prefer to propagate cuttings that provide at least 70% rooting [12,67]. This and previous studies [14,20,29,30,68] demonstrate that effective maintenance of stock plant juvenility will be critical in allowing large-scale establishment of this eucalypt hybrid in clonal plantations.

Acknowledgments

We thank Tracey McMahon and Pip Bryant for assistance. This work was supported by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and the Queensland National and International Research Alliances Program.

Author Contributions

Ivar Wendling and Stephen J. Trueman conceived and designed the study. Ivar Wendling and Paul M. Warburton performed the experiments. Ivar Wendling analysed the data. Ivar Wendling and Stephen J. Trueman wrote the manuscript with assistance from Paul M. Warburton.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Xavier, A.; Wendling, I.; Silva, R.L. Silvicultura Clonal—Princípios e Técnicas; Editora UFV: Viçosa, Brazil, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  2. Assis, T.F.; Fett-Neto, A.G.; Alfenas, A.C. Current techniques and prospects for the clonal propagation of hardwoods with emphasis on Eucalyptus. In Plantation Forest Biotechnology for the 21st Century; Walter, C., Carson, M., Eds.; Research Signpost: Kerala, India, 2004; pp. 303–333. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bettinger, P.; Clutter, M.; Siry, J.; Kane, M.; Pait, J. Broad implications of southern United States pine clonal forestry on planning and management of forests. Int. For. Rev. 2009, 11, 331–345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Greenwood, M.S.; Hutchinson, K.W. Maturation as a developmental process. In Clonal Forestry I: Genetics and Biotechnology; Ahuja, M.R., Libby, W.J., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1993; pp. 14–33. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mitchell, R.G.; Zwolinski, J.; Jones, N.B. A review on the effects of donor maturation on rooting and field performance of conifer cuttings. South. Afr. For. J. 2004, 201, 51–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. McMahon, T.V.; Hung, C.D.; Trueman, S.J. In vitro storage delays the maturation of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) clones. J. Plant Sci. 2013, 8, 31–38. [Google Scholar]
  7. Pijut, P.M.; Woeste, K.E.; Michler, C.H. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species. Hortic. Rev. 2011, 38, 213–251. [Google Scholar]
  8. Husen, A. Changes of soluble sugars and enzymatic activities during adventitious rooting in cuttings of Grewia optiva as affected by age of donor plants and auxin treatments. Am. J. Plant Physiol. 2012, 7, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Wendling, I.; Trueman, S.J.; Xavier, A. Maturation and related aspects in clonal forestry—Part I: Concepts, regulation and consequences of phase change. New For. 2014, 45, 449–471. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Wendling, I.; Trueman, S.J.; Xavier, A. Maturation and related aspects in clonal forestry—Part II: Reinvigoration, rejuvenation and juvenility maintenance. New For. 2014, 45, 473–486. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Aimers-Halliday, J.; Menzies, M.I.; Faulds, T.; Holden, D.G.; Low, C.B.; Dibley, M.J. Nursery systems to control maturation in Pinus radiata cuttings, comparing hedging and serial propagation. N. Z. J. For. Sci. 2003, 33, 135–155. [Google Scholar]
  12. Trueman, S.J. Clonal propagation and storage of subtropical pines in Queensland, Australia. South. Afr. For. J. 2006, 208, 49–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Abu-Abied, M.; Szwerdszarf, D.; Mordehaev, I.; Levy, A.; Rogovoy, O.; Belausov, E.; Yaniv, Y.; Uliel, S.; Katzenellenbogen, M.; Riov, J.; et al. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of nitrate reductase in juvenile cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis, which correlated with increased nitric oxide production and adventitious root formation. Plant J. 2012, 71, 787–799. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Hung, C.D.; Trueman, S.J. Topophysic effects differ between node and organogenic cultures of the eucalypt Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 2011, 104, 69–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Davies, P.J. The plant hormones: Their nature, occurrence, and functions. In Plant Hormones; Davies, P.J., Ed.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 1–15. [Google Scholar]
  16. Costa, C.T.; de Almeida, M.R.; Ruedell, C.M.; Schwambach, J.; Maraschin, F.S.; Fett-Neto, A.G. When stress and development go hand in hand: Main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings. Front. Plant Sci. 2013, 4, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Chen, C.W.; Yang, Y.W.; Lur, H.S.; Tsai, Y.G.; Chang, M.C. A novel function of abscisic acid in the regulation of rice (Oryza sativa) root growth and development. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006, 47, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Mwange, W.N.; Hou, H.W.; Cui, K.M. Relationship between endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid changes and bark recovery in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. after girding. J. Exp. Bot. 2003, 54, 1899–1907. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Materán, M.E.; Fernández, M.; Valenzuela, S.; Sáez, K.; Seemann, P.; Sánchez-Olate, M.; Ríos, D. Abscisic acid and 3-indolacetic acid levels during the reinvigoration process of Pinus radiata D. Don adult material. Plant Growth Regul. 2009, 59, 171–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Wendling, I.; Brooks, P.R.; Trueman, S.J. Topophysis in Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora seedlings: Adventitious rooting capacity, stem anatomy, and auxin and abscisic acid concentrations. New For. 2015, 46, 107–120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Trueman, S.J.; Adkins, M.F. Effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine and 1-methylcyclopropene on leaf abscission and root formation in Corymbia and Eucalyptus cuttings. Sci. Hortic. 2013, 161, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Trueman, S.J.; McMahon, T.V.; Bristow, M. Production of cuttings in response to stock plant temperature in the subtropical eucalypts, Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus dunnii. New For. 2013, 44, 265–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Trueman, S.J.; McMahon, T.V.; Bristow, M. Production of Eucalyptus cloeziana cuttings in response to stock plant temperature. J. Trop. For. Sci. 2013, 25, 60–69. [Google Scholar]
  24. Bryant, P.H.; Trueman, S.J. Stem anatomy and adventitious root formation in cuttings of Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus. Forests 2015, 6, 1227–1238. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Titon, M.; Xavier, A.; Otoni, W.C. Clonal propagation of Eucalyptus grandis using the mini-cutting and micro-cutting techniques. Sci. For. 2006, 71, 109–117. [Google Scholar]
  26. Rosa, L.S.; Wendling, I.; Grossi, F.; Reissmann, C.B. Effect of the nitrogen dose and substrate formulations on the minicutting technique of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. Rev. Árv. 2009, 33, 1025–1035. [Google Scholar]
  27. Brondani, G.E.; Grossi, F.; Wendling, I.; Dutra, L.F.; Araujo, M.A. Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii mini-cutting technique: (II) mini-cutting survival and rooting in relation to collection and seasons. Ciência Flor. 2010, 20, 453–465. [Google Scholar]
  28. Brondani, G.E.; Wendling, I.; Grossi, F.; Dutra, L.F.; de Araujo, M.A. Miniestaquia de Eucalyptus benthamii × Eucalyptus dunnii: (I) sobrevivência de minicepas e produção de miniestacas em função das coletas e estações do ano. Ciência Flor. 2012, 22, 11–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Hung, C.D.; Trueman, S.J. Nutrient responses differ between node and organogenic cultures of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora (Myrtaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 2010, 58, 410–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. McMahon, T.V.; Hung, C.D.; Trueman, S.J. Clonal maturation of Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora is delayed by minimal-growth storage. Aust. For. 2014, 77, 9–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Kelen, M.; Demiralay, E.C.; Sen, S.; Ozkan, G. Separation of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid in 99 R (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris) and rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill.) by reversed phase liquid chromatography. Turk. J. Chem. 2004, 28, 603–610. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kilkenny, A.J.; Wallace, H.M.; Walton, D.A.; Adkins, M.F.; Trueman, S.J. Improved root formation in eucalypt cuttings following combined auxin and anti-ethylene treatments. J. Plant Sci. 2012, 7, 138–153. [Google Scholar]
  33. Pohio, K.E.; Wallace, H.M.; Peters, R.F.; Smith, T.E.; Trueman, S.J. Cuttings of Wollemi pine tolerate moderate photoinhibition and remain highly capable of root formation. Trees 2005, 19, 587–595. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Trueman, S.J.; Richardson, D.M. Relationships between indole-3-butyric acid, photoinhibition and adventitious rooting of Corymbia torelliana, C. citriodora and F1 hybrid cuttings. Tree For. Sci. Biotechnol. 2008, 2, 26–33. [Google Scholar]
  35. Husen, A.; Pal, M. Effect of branch position and auxin treatment on clonal propagation of Tectona grandis Linn. f. New For. 2007, 34, 223–233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Tchoundjeu, Z.; Leakey, R.R.B. Vegetative propagation of African mahogany: Effects of auxin, node position, leaf area and cutting length. New For. 1996, 11, 125–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Husen, A.; Pal, M. Effect of serial bud grafting and etiolation on rejuvenation and rooting of mature trees of Tectona grandis Linn. f. Silvae Genet. 2003, 52, 84–88. [Google Scholar]
  38. Husen, A.; Pal, M. Variation in shoot anatomy and rooting behaviour of stem cuttings in relation to age of donor plants in teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.). New For. 2006, 31, 57–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Haines, R.; Walker, S. Maturation questions relating to clonal forestry. In Clonal Forestry Workshop; QFRI: Gympie, Australia, 1993; p. 13. [Google Scholar]
  40. Bon, M.C.; Riccardi, F.; Monteuuis, O. Influence of phase change within a 90-year-old Sequoia sempervirens on its in vitro organogenic capacity and protein patterns. Trees 1994, 8, 283–287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Bitencourt, J.; Ribas, K.C.Z.; Wendling, I.; Koeler, H. Enraizamento de estacas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill.) provenientes de brotações rejuvenescidas. Rev. Bras. Plant. Med. 2009, 11, 277–281. [Google Scholar]
  42. Hackett, W.P.; Murray, J.R. Maturation and rejuvenation in woody species. In Micropropagation of Woody Plants; Ahuja, M.R., Ed.; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993; pp. 93–105. [Google Scholar]
  43. Von Aderkas, P.; Bonga, J.M. Influencing micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis in mature trees by manipulation of phase change, stress and culture environment. Tree Physiol. 2000, 20, 921–928. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Hartmann, H.T.; Kester, D.E.; Davies, F.T., Jr.; Geneve, R.L. Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices; Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  45. Osterc, G.; Štefančič, M.; Štampar, F. Juvenile stockplant material enhances root development through higher endogenous auxin level. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2009, 31, 899–903. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Osterc, G.; Štampar, F. Differences in endo/exogenous auxin profile in cuttings of different physiological ages. J. Plant Physiol. 2011, 168, 2088–2092. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Almeida, M.R.; Bastiani, D.; Gaeta, M.L.; Mariath, J.E.A.; Costa, F.; Retallick, J.; Nolan, L.; Tai, H.H.; Strömvik, M.V.; Fett-Neto, A.G. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus. Plant. Sci. 2015, 239, 155–165. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  48. Ford, Y.Y.; Bonham, E.C.; Cameron, R.W.F.; Blake, P.S.; Judd, H.L.; Harrison-Murray, R.S. Adventitious rooting: Examining the role of auxin in an easy-and a difficult-to-root plant. Plant Growth Regul. 2002, 36, 149–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Tsipouridis, C.; Thomidis, T.; Bladenopoulou, S. Rhizogenesis of GF677, Early Crest, May Crest and Arm King stem cuttings during the year in relation to carbohydrate and natural hormone content. Sci. Hortic. 2006, 108, 200–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Negishi, N.; Nakahama, K.; Urata, N.; Kojima, M.; Sakakibara, H.; Kawaoka, A. Hormone level analysis on adventitious root formation in Eucalyptus globulus. New For. 2014, 45, 577–587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Stewart, J.L.; Nemhauser, J.L. Do trees grow on money? Auxin as the currency of the cellular economy. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 2010, 2, 2–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. Maynard, B.K.; Bassuk, N.L. Effects of stock plant etiolation, shading, banding, and shoot development on histology and cutting propagation of Carpinus betulus L. fastigiata. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 1996, 121, 853–860. [Google Scholar]
  53. Pacholczak, A.; Szydło, W.; Łukaszewska, A. The effect of shading of stock plants on rhizogenesis in stem cuttings of Berberis thunbergii “Red Rocket”. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2006, 28, 567–575. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Amissah, J.N.; Paolillo, D.J., Jr.; Bassuk, N. Adventitious root formation in stem cuttings of Quercus bicolor and Quercus macrocarpa and its relationship to stem anatomy. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 2008, 133, 479–486. [Google Scholar]
  55. Bonga, J.M.; von Aderkas, P. Rejuvenation of tissues from mature conifers and its implications for propagation in vitro. In Clonal Forestry I, Genetics and Biotechnology; Ahuja, M.R., Libby, W.J., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1993; pp. 182–199. [Google Scholar]
  56. Hamann, A. Adventitious root formation in cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.): Developmental sequence and effects of maturation. Trees 1998, 12, 175–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Russel, J.H. Clonal forestry with yellow cedar. In Clonal Forestry II, Conservation and Application; Ahuja, M.R., Libby, W.J., Eds.; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1993; pp. 188–201. [Google Scholar]
  58. Ritchie, G.A. The commercial use of conifer rooted cuttings in forestry: A world overview. New For. 1991, 5, 247–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. McGranahan, M.F.; Boralho, N.M.G.; Greaves, B.L. Genetic control of propagation effects and the importance of stock plant age and source on early growth in cuttings of Pinus radiata. Silvae Genet. 1999, 48, 267–272. [Google Scholar]
  60. Mitchell, R.G.; Zwolinski, J.; Jones, N.B. The effects of ontogenetic maturation in Pinus patula—Part I: Nursery performance. South. Afr. For. J. 2004, 202, 29–36. [Google Scholar]
  61. Wendling, I.; Xavier, A.; Paiva, H.D. Influência da miniestaquia seriada no vigor de minicepas de clones de Eucalyptus grandis. Rev. Árv. 2003, 27, 611–618. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Wendling, I.; Dutra, L.F.; Grossi, F. Produção e sobrevivência de miniestacas e minicepas de erva-mate cultivadas em sistema semi-hidropônico. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 2007, 42, 289–292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Da Cunha, A.C.M.C.M.; Wendling, I.; Júnior, L.S. Produtividade e sobrevivência de minicepas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage em sistema de hidroponia e em tubete. Ciência Flor. 2005, 15, 307–310. [Google Scholar]
  64. Majada, J.; Martínez-Alonso, C.; Feito, I.; Kidelman, A.; Aranda, I.; Alía, R. Mini-cuttings: An effective technique for the propagation of Pinus pinaster Ait. New For. 2011, 41, 399–412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Da Cunha, A.C.M.C.M.; Paiva, H.N.; Leite, H.G.; Barros, N.F.; Leite, F.P. Relações entre variáveis climáticas com produção e enraizamento de miniestacias de eucalipto. Rev. Árv. 2009, 33, 195–203. [Google Scholar]
  66. Trueman, S.J.; McMahon, T.V.; Bristow, M. Biomass partitioning in Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus cloeziana and E. dunnii stock plants in response to temperature. J. Trop. For. Sci. 2013, 5, 504–509. [Google Scholar]
  67. Hunt, M.A.; Trueman, S.J.; Rasmussen, A. Indole-3-butyric acid accelerates adventitious root formation and impedes shoot growth of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings. New For. 2011, 41, 349–360. [Google Scholar]
  68. Hung, C.D.; Trueman, S.J. Alginate encapsulation of shoot tips and nodal segments for short-term storage and distribution of the eucalypt Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2012, 34, 117–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Back to TopTop