Ambiguity in Timber Trade Regarding Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging: Potential Impacts on Trade between South-East Asia and Europe
1.2. Reasoning and Objectives
2. Ambiguity: Theoretical Setting and Relevance for International Trade
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Literature Search
3.2. Trade Data Analysis
3.2.1. Econometric Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Ambiguity in the International Timber-Trade
4.1.1. Substitution: Comparing Oak and Tropical Lumber Imports
4.1.2. Trade Diversion
- Substitution: as a result of the general uncertainty concerning FLEGT’s interpretation, UK importers are opting for temperate hardwoods to the detriment of tropical hardwoods in order to avoid risks. There is indeed evidence that oak lumber is a possible substitute for tropical hardwood lumber.
- Trade diversion: since EU’s legality requirements are not fully understood and they are associated with extra costs necessary to provide certification and/or required documentation, Indonesian exporters are choosing to export timber to other markets characterized by less stringent regulatory frameworks (e.g., China).
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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Questions and answers from the UK
Questions and answers from Indonesia
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Giurca, A.; Jonsson, R.; Rinaldi, F.; Priyadi, H. Ambiguity in Timber Trade Regarding Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging: Potential Impacts on Trade between South-East Asia and Europe. Forests 2013, 4, 730-750. https://doi.org/10.3390/f4040730
Giurca A, Jonsson R, Rinaldi F, Priyadi H. Ambiguity in Timber Trade Regarding Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging: Potential Impacts on Trade between South-East Asia and Europe. Forests. 2013; 4(4):730-750. https://doi.org/10.3390/f4040730Chicago/Turabian Style
Giurca, Alexandru, Ragnar Jonsson, Francesca Rinaldi, and Hari Priyadi. 2013. "Ambiguity in Timber Trade Regarding Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging: Potential Impacts on Trade between South-East Asia and Europe" Forests 4, no. 4: 730-750. https://doi.org/10.3390/f4040730