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Article

Suppression of Ganoderma boninense Using Benzoic Acid: Impact on Cellular Ultrastructure and Anatomical Changes in Oil Palm Wood

1
Laboratory of Sustainable Agronomy and Crop Protection, Institute of Plantation Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
3
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick Wellesbourne, Warwick CV 359EF, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kateryna Davydenko and Ari M. Hietala
Forests 2021, 12(9), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091231
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 26 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 10 September 2021
Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by a wood degrading fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is the major constraint in palm oil production. It degrades the wood components and causes palms to collapse, leading to heavy losses. Inefficacy in controlling this disease could be caused by the lack of understanding in how the pathogen establishes itself on the host concerning wood decay stages. This study aimed to understand and determine the role of benzoic acid on the suppression of G. boninense and production of ligninolytic enzymes responsible for wood decay. Further, the alteration in wood component structure due to G. boninense infection and its prevention were studied. Benzoic acid treatment resulted in more than 80% of inhibition in G. boninense growth. SEM and HR-TEM analysis confirmed the antifungal activity of benzoic acid by disruption of mycelial morphology and cellular ultrastructure. Moreover, the membrane permeability assay recorded enhanced cell mortality in benzoic acid treated mycelium. The degradation of oil palm woodblock caused 58.86 % wood dry weight loss at day 120. In contrast, reduction in dry weight loss (58.82%) was recorded in woodblock treated with concentrations of benzoic acid of 5 mM and above. It is concluded that the use of benzoic acid could inhibit or delay pathogen establishment in oil palm wood, leading to the sustainable management of BSR disease. Further, glasshouse and field trials are required to prove the consistency in current findings which may contribute to reduced land expansion to create new disease-free land for oil palm planting. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ganoderma boninense; basal stem rot; flowcytometry; membrane integrity; wood degradation; ligninolytic enzyme; cell wall degradation; benzoic acid Ganoderma boninense; basal stem rot; flowcytometry; membrane integrity; wood degradation; ligninolytic enzyme; cell wall degradation; benzoic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernanda, R.; Siddiqui, Y.; Ganapathy, D.; Ahmad, K.; Surendran, A. Suppression of Ganoderma boninense Using Benzoic Acid: Impact on Cellular Ultrastructure and Anatomical Changes in Oil Palm Wood. Forests 2021, 12, 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091231

AMA Style

Fernanda R, Siddiqui Y, Ganapathy D, Ahmad K, Surendran A. Suppression of Ganoderma boninense Using Benzoic Acid: Impact on Cellular Ultrastructure and Anatomical Changes in Oil Palm Wood. Forests. 2021; 12(9):1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernanda, Rozi, Yasmeen Siddiqui, Daarshini Ganapathy, Khairulmazmi Ahmad, and Arthy Surendran. 2021. "Suppression of Ganoderma boninense Using Benzoic Acid: Impact on Cellular Ultrastructure and Anatomical Changes in Oil Palm Wood" Forests 12, no. 9: 1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12091231

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