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Article

The Possibility of Using the Chapman–Richards and Näslund Functions to Model Height–Diameter Relationships in Hemiboreal Old-Growth Forest in Estonia

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Department of Forest Management Planning and Wood Processing Technologies, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455, USA
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Department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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Department of Geomatics, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Phillip Comeau
Forests 2021, 12(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020184
Received: 13 December 2020 / Revised: 24 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 6 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Disturbance Dynamics Analysis for Forest Ecosystem Management)
In light of the difficulties in stand volume estimation of natural forests, we analyzed height–diameter relationships and derived a set of height estimation equations for volume estimation for naturally developing forest ecosystems, using the Järvselja old-growth and the Laeva commercial forest in Estonia as a case study. This contribution presents an approach to model individual tree height–diameter relationships for Scots pine, common aspen, silver and downy birch, Norway spruce, black alder, gray alder, linden species, European ash, Norway maple, deciduous species and coniferous species in multi-size and mixed-species naturally developing stands in Estonia. Single-tree-level data were collected in 2013. Two methods were used to obtain stand-level data: whole surface inventory and partial surface inventory. To model the height–diameter relationship in naturally developed mixed-species forest stands in order to predict single tree height based on observed diameter at breast height, we applied nonlinear mixed models where we applied the Chapman–Richards and Näslund models as fixed-effects and the influence of the species contribution at the sites as random effects. The fixed-effects followed a set of criteria: (1) height starts at h = 1.3; d = 0; (2) the applied functions are monotonically increasing with a clear inflection point and 3) the fixed-effect model has an asymptotic value) in a naturally developed mixed-species forest. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural forest allometry; Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre natural forest allometry; Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nigul, K.; Padari, A.; Kiviste, A.; Noe, S.M.; Korjus, H.; Laarmann, D.; Frelich, L.E.; Jõgiste, K.; Stanturf, J.A.; Paluots, T.; Põldveer, E.; Kängsepp, V.; Jürgenson, H.; Metslaid, M.; Kangur, A. The Possibility of Using the Chapman–Richards and Näslund Functions to Model Height–Diameter Relationships in Hemiboreal Old-Growth Forest in Estonia. Forests 2021, 12, 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020184

AMA Style

Nigul K, Padari A, Kiviste A, Noe SM, Korjus H, Laarmann D, Frelich LE, Jõgiste K, Stanturf JA, Paluots T, Põldveer E, Kängsepp V, Jürgenson H, Metslaid M, Kangur A. The Possibility of Using the Chapman–Richards and Näslund Functions to Model Height–Diameter Relationships in Hemiboreal Old-Growth Forest in Estonia. Forests. 2021; 12(2):184. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nigul, Kristi, Allar Padari, Andres Kiviste, Steffen M. Noe, Henn Korjus, Diana Laarmann, Lee E. Frelich, Kalev Jõgiste, John A. Stanturf, Teele Paluots, Eneli Põldveer, Vivika Kängsepp, Harli Jürgenson, Marek Metslaid, and Ahto Kangur. 2021. "The Possibility of Using the Chapman–Richards and Näslund Functions to Model Height–Diameter Relationships in Hemiboreal Old-Growth Forest in Estonia" Forests 12, no. 2: 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020184

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