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Horizontal and Vertical Distributions of Heartwood for Teak Plantation

1
Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangxi Youyiguan Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Pingxiang 532600, China
2
Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou 510520, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020225
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 17 February 2020
Tectona grandis is a valuable timber species with heartwood that is used worldwide. Most of the previous studies on its heartwood and sapwood have focused on dominant or mean trees, while trees with different social status might show different vertical and horizontal distributions of heartwood and sapwood. Studies on their heartwood and sapwood properties could be conducive to increasing heartwood yield at stand level. In 31-year-old plantations of T. grandis in southwest Guangxi, China, the trees were divided into three groups including dominant, mean and suppressed trees. Stem analysis was conducted for sampled trees in each of these groups to explore the differences in the horizontal and vertical distribution of their heartwood and sapwood. The results indicated that the heartwood radius, heartwood and sapwood areas of T. grandis showed significant differences in horizontal and vertical directions among trees of different social status. Heartwood began to form when xylem radius was 2–3 cm, and the heartwood radius ratio tended to be stable when the xylem radius reached about 8 cm. Heartwood radius and area, sapwood area and section heartwood volume all decreased with increasing tree height. The ratios of heartwood radius and area were relatively stable for sections under 50% of tree height. The sapwood width did not vary largely in horizontal and vertical directions among the three social status tree groups, which mainly fluctuated in the range of 1–4 cm. The heartwood volume proportions for dominant, mean and suppressed trees were 60%, 55% and 51%, respectively. There was a significant exponential relationship between heartwood volume and diameter at breast height (DBH) regardless of social status. The model HV = 0.000011 × DBH2.9787 (R2 = 0.8601) could accurately estimate heartwood volume for all T. grandis with different social statuses at this age. These findings could provide evidence for stand management and high-quality and large-sized timber production of T. grandis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tectona grandis; social status; heartwood; sapwood; vertical variation; horizontal variation Tectona grandis; social status; heartwood; sapwood; vertical variation; horizontal variation
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Yang, B.; Jia, H.; Zhao, Z.; Pang, S.; Cai, D. Horizontal and Vertical Distributions of Heartwood for Teak Plantation. Forests 2020, 11, 225.

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