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Article

Income and Ecosystem Service Comparisons of Refined National and Agroforestry Accounting Frameworks: Application to Holm Oak Open Woodlands in Andalusia, Spain

1
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP), C/Albasanz, 26–28, E-28037 Madrid, Spain
2
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Institute of Marine Sciences of Andalusia (ICMAN), Campus Universitario Río San Pedro s/n, E-11519 Pto. Real-Cádiz, Spain
3
The James Hutton Institute, Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020185
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Valuation and Sustainable Management of Forests)
There is growing consensus regarding the implementation of a new statistical framework for environmental-economic accounting to improve ecosystem related policies. As the standard System of National Accounts (SNA) fails to measure the economic contribution of ecosystems to the total income of individuals, governments recognize the need to expand the standard SNA through the ongoing System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA). Based on the authors’ own data, this study focuses on linking 15 economic activities and 12 ecosystem services for a holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) open woodlands (HOW) ecosystem type in Andalusia, Spain. We emphasize that overcoming the challenges of multiple use is preferable to measuring single ecosystem products for improving habitat conservation policies. The objectives of this paper are to measure and compare the environmental assets, ecosystem services, and incomes at basic and social prices by applying a refined version of the standard System of National Accounts (rSNA) and the authors’ Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS), respectively, to HOW. Considering intermediate products and consumptions of HOW farmer and government activities, we find that the rSNA ecosystem services and environmental incomes at basic prices are 123.3 €/ha and −28.0 €/ha, respectively, while those of the AAS at social prices are 442.2 €/ha and 250.8 €/ha. Given advances in non-market valuation techniques, we show that an expanded definition of economic activities can be applied to measure the contribution to total income of managed natural areas taking into account the multiple uses of the ecosystem type. However, HOW sustainability continues to be a challenging issue that requires ecological threshold indicators to be identified, not only because of the economic implications but also because they provide vital information on which to base policy implementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: total income; ecosystem accounting; environmental income; environmental asset; national accounts; private amenity total income; ecosystem accounting; environmental income; environmental asset; national accounts; private amenity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, P.; Álvarez, A.; Oviedo, J.L.; Ovando, P.; Mesa, B.; Caparrós, A. Income and Ecosystem Service Comparisons of Refined National and Agroforestry Accounting Frameworks: Application to Holm Oak Open Woodlands in Andalusia, Spain. Forests 2020, 11, 185. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020185

AMA Style

Campos P, Álvarez A, Oviedo JL, Ovando P, Mesa B, Caparrós A. Income and Ecosystem Service Comparisons of Refined National and Agroforestry Accounting Frameworks: Application to Holm Oak Open Woodlands in Andalusia, Spain. Forests. 2020; 11(2):185. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020185

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campos, Pablo, Alejandro Álvarez, José L. Oviedo, Paola Ovando, Bruno Mesa, and Alejandro Caparrós. 2020. "Income and Ecosystem Service Comparisons of Refined National and Agroforestry Accounting Frameworks: Application to Holm Oak Open Woodlands in Andalusia, Spain" Forests 11, no. 2: 185. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020185

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