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Article

Detecting Dead Standing Eucalypt Trees from Voxelised Full-Waveform Lidar Using Multi-Scale 3D-Windows for Tackling Height and Size Variations

1
Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment, Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, School of Engineering and Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol 3036, Cyprus
2
ERATOSTHENES Centre of Excellence, Limassol 3036, Cyprus
3
Remote Sensing Department, Interpine Group Ltd., Rotorua 3010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020161
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2020 / Accepted: 23 January 2020 / Published: 31 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Modeling and Remote Sensing)
In southern Australia, many native mammals and birds rely on hollows for sheltering, while hollows are more likely to exist on dead trees. Therefore, detection of dead trees could be useful in managing biodiversity. Detecting dead standing (snags) versus dead fallen trees (Coarse Woody Debris—CWD) is a very different task from a classification perspective. This study focuses on improving detection of dead standing eucalypt trees from full-waveform LiDAR. Eucalypt trees have irregular shapes making delineation of them challenging. Additionally, since the study area is a native forest, trees significantly vary in terms of height, density and size. Therefore, we need methods that will be resistant to those challenges. Previous study showed that detection of dead standing trees without tree delineation is possible. This was achieved by using single size 3D-windows to extract structural features from voxelised full-waveform LiDAR and characterise dead (positive samples) and live (negative samples) trees for training a classifier. This paper adds on by proposing the usage of multi-scale 3D-windows for tackling height and size variations of trees. Both the single 3D-windows approach and the new multi-scale 3D-windows approach were implemented for comparison purposes. The accuracy of the results was calculated using the precision and recall parameters and it was proven that the multi-scale 3D-windows approach performs better than the single size 3D-windows approach. This open ups possibilities for applying the proposed approach on other native forest related applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: full-waveform LiDAR; airborne laser scanning; native forests; 3D structural features; 3D-windows; snag; hollows; eucalypt trees; biodiversity full-waveform LiDAR; airborne laser scanning; native forests; 3D structural features; 3D-windows; snag; hollows; eucalypt trees; biodiversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miltiadou, M.; Agapiou, A.; Gonzalez Aracil, S.; Hadjimitsis, D.G. Detecting Dead Standing Eucalypt Trees from Voxelised Full-Waveform Lidar Using Multi-Scale 3D-Windows for Tackling Height and Size Variations. Forests 2020, 11, 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020161

AMA Style

Miltiadou M, Agapiou A, Gonzalez Aracil S, Hadjimitsis DG. Detecting Dead Standing Eucalypt Trees from Voxelised Full-Waveform Lidar Using Multi-Scale 3D-Windows for Tackling Height and Size Variations. Forests. 2020; 11(2):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miltiadou, Milto, Athos Agapiou, Susana Gonzalez Aracil, and Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis 2020. "Detecting Dead Standing Eucalypt Trees from Voxelised Full-Waveform Lidar Using Multi-Scale 3D-Windows for Tackling Height and Size Variations" Forests 11, no. 2: 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020161

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