Next Article in Journal
Does Deforestation Trigger Severe Flood Damage at Hoeryeong City in North Korea?
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Pinus massoniana and Its Introgression Hybrid
Open AccessArticle

Effects on Greenhouse Gas (CH4, CO2, N2O) Emissions of Conversion from Over-Mature Forest to Secondary Forest and Korean Pine Plantation in Northeast China

by 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, No.26 Hexing Road Xiangfang District, Harbin 150040, China
2
Ministry of Education Key Laboratoty of Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Management, Northeast Forestry University, No.26 Hexing Road Xiangfang District, Harbin 150040, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(9), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090788
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 31 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation)
This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal variations of Greenhouse Gas fluxes (CH4, CO2, and N2O), Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, and Global Warming Potential (GWP) over the extent of the regions and understand the controlling factors. CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes were measured along with their environmental variables from the over-mature forest, Korean pine plantation, and five 60-year-old natural secondary forests in mountainous regions in Northeast China from May 2015 to April 2016. The results revealed that secondary forests, except for Betula platyphylla forest, significantly increased CH4 absorption by 19.6% to 51.0% and 32.6% to 67.0% compared with over-mature forest (OMF) and Korean pine plantation (KPP). Five secondary forests significantly increased CO2 flux by 32.9% to 78.6% and 14.1% to 53.4% compared with OMF and KPP, respectively. According to the annual statistics, the N2O fluxes had significant differences among seven forest types and decreased in the following order: mixed deciduous forest (MDF) > OMF > KPP > Populous davidiana forest (PDF) > hardwood forest (HWF) > Mongolian oak forest (MOF) > Betula platyphylla forest (BPF). The CH4 absorption and CO2 emission peaks occurred in summer, while the peak N2O fluxes occurred in spring. Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soils were strongly influenced by air and soil temperature, soil volumetric water content (SVWC), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), and soil organic carbon (SOC) across the whole year. Air temperature, SVWC, pH, NO3-N, and NH4+-N were the dominant factors controlling N2O fluxes from OMF and five secondary forests (except for BPF). No significant relationships were observed between these environmental factors and N2O fluxes from KPP and BPF. Additionally, the total cumulative CH4, CO2, and N2O fluxes were –13.37 t CH4 year−1, 41,608.96 t CO2 year−1, and 3.24 t N2O year−1, and the total cumulative GWP were 42,151.87 t CO2 eq year−1 through the whole year in seven forest types at the Maoershan Ecosystem Research Station in Northeast China. For the annual GWP per hectare, secondary forests and KPP averaged a higher GWP by 33.7%–80.1% and 17.9% compared with OMF. This indicates that the effects of early human activities have not been completely eliminated in the middle stage of KPP and secondary forests. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondary forests; over-mature forests; Korean pine plantation; greenhouse gas fluxes; global warming potential secondary forests; over-mature forests; Korean pine plantation; greenhouse gas fluxes; global warming potential
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, B.; Mu, C. Effects on Greenhouse Gas (CH4, CO2, N2O) Emissions of Conversion from Over-Mature Forest to Secondary Forest and Korean Pine Plantation in Northeast China. Forests 2019, 10, 788.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop