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Non-Destructive Evaluation Techniques and What They Tell Us about Wood Property Variation

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Department of Wood Science and Engineering, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
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Forest Quality Pty Ltd., Huonville, Tasmania, Australia
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Marshall Day Acoustics, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
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Silviscan Pty Ltd., Doncaster East, Victoria, Australia
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Scion, Rotorua 3010, New Zealand
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INRA-Unité BioForA, Orléans, France
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UGent-Woodlab, Laboratory of Wood Technology, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
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Ghent University Centre for X-ray Tomography (UGCT), B-9000 Gent, Belgium
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USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(9), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090728
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Decade of Forests Open Access Publishing)
To maximize utilization of our forest resources, detailed knowledge of wood property variation and the impacts this has on end-product performance is required at multiple scales (within and among trees, regionally). As many wood properties are difficult and time-consuming to measure our knowledge regarding their variation is often inadequate as is our understanding of their responses to genetic and silvicultural manipulation. The emergence of many non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methodologies offers the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the forest resource; however, it is critical to recognize that any technique has its limitations and it is important to select the appropriate technique for a given application. In this review, we will discuss the following technologies for assessing wood properties both in the field: acoustics, Pilodyn, Resistograph and Rigidimeter and the lab: computer tomography (CT) scanning, DiscBot, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, radial sample acoustics and SilviScan. We will discuss these techniques, explore their utilization, and list applications that best suit each methodology. As an end goal, NDE technologies will help researchers worldwide characterize wood properties, develop accurate models for prediction, and utilize field equipment that can validate the predictions. The continued advancement of NDE technologies will also allow researchers to better understand the impact on wood properties on product performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustics; computer tomography (CT) scanning; DiscBot; near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy; nondestructive evaluation (NDE); Pilodyn; Rigidimeter; Resistograph; SilviScan; wood and fiber quality; X-ray densitometry; X-ray diffraction acoustics; computer tomography (CT) scanning; DiscBot; near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy; nondestructive evaluation (NDE); Pilodyn; Rigidimeter; Resistograph; SilviScan; wood and fiber quality; X-ray densitometry; X-ray diffraction
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Schimleck, L.; Dahlen, J.; Apiolaza, L.A.; Downes, G.; Emms, G.; Evans, R.; Moore, J.; Pâques, L.; Van den Bulcke, J.; Wang, X. Non-Destructive Evaluation Techniques and What They Tell Us about Wood Property Variation. Forests 2019, 10, 728.

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