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Nitrogen Deposition and Responses of Forest Structure to Nitrogen Deposition in a Cool-Temperate Deciduous Forest

1
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
2
River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
3
Takayama Field Station, River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, 919-47 Iwai, Takayama, Gifu 506-0815, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan.
Forests 2019, 10(8), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10080631
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 27 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
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Abstract

Few studies have reported the estimation of nitrogen (N) deposition, including dissolved organic N (DON) fluxes, through water flows and the contribution of snowfall in Asia. In this study, the concentrations and fluxes of DON and dissolved inorganic N (DIN) in bulk precipitation (BP), the throughfall (TF) of trees and understory dwarf bamboo, and stemflow (SF) were evaluated in a cool-temperate forest over three years to clarify N fluxes via precipitation and responses of trees and understory canopies to N deposition. The input of N to the study site in BP was 11.1 ± 1.71 kg N ha−1 year−1, with a significant contribution from DON (78%). Snowfall fluxes contributed up to 46% of the total N input, with variations related to the amount of snowfall (2.08–5.52 kg N ha−1 year−1). The forest canopy enriched DON (2.11 ± 0.42 kg N ha−1 year−1) but consumed NO3 + NO2–N (−0.73 ± 0.19 kg N ha−1 year−1). In contrast, through the understory bamboo canopy, DON (−1.02 ± 0.55 kg N ha−1 year−1) decreased while DIN (0.35 ± 0.44 kg N ha−1 year−1) increased. This study indicates that DON and snowfall should not be neglected when evaluating total N deposition into forest ecosystems, especially in remote regions. The canopy processes related to the dissolved N in the presence of understory plants might have significant implications for the internal N cycle in forest ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Takayama forest; understory; dissolved organic nitrogen; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; throughfall; stemflow; net throughfall Takayama forest; understory; dissolved organic nitrogen; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; throughfall; stemflow; net throughfall
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Cao, R.; Chen, S.; Yoshitake, S.; Ohtsuka, T. Nitrogen Deposition and Responses of Forest Structure to Nitrogen Deposition in a Cool-Temperate Deciduous Forest. Forests 2019, 10, 631.

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