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Acoustic-Based Prediction of End-Product-Based Fibre Determinates within Standing Jack Pine Trees

Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
Forests 2019, 10(7), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10070605
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to specify, parameterize, and evaluate an acoustic-based inferential framework for estimating commercially-relevant wood attributes within standing jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) trees. The analytical framework consisted of a suite of models for predicting the dynamic modulus of elasticity (me), microfibril angle (ma), oven-dried wood density (wd), tracheid wall thickness (wt), radial and tangential tracheid diameters (dr and dt, respectively), fibre coarseness (co), and specific surface area (sa), from dilatational stress wave velocity (vd). Data acquisition consisted of (1) in-forest collection of acoustic velocity measurements on 61 sample trees situated within 10 variable-sized plots that were established in four mature jack pine stands situated in boreal Canada followed by the removal of breast-height cross-sectional disk samples, and (2) given (1), in-laboratory extraction of radial-based transverse xylem samples from the 61 disks and subsequent attribute determination via Silviscan-3. Statistically, attribute-specific acoustic prediction models were specified, parameterized, and, subsequently, evaluated on their goodness-of-fit, lack-of-fit, and predictive ability. The results indicated that significant (p ≤ 0.05) and unbiased relationships could be established for all attributes but dt. The models explained 71%, 66%, 61%, 42%, 30%, 19%, and 13% of the variation in me, wt, sa, co, wd, ma, and dr, respectively. Simulated model performance when deploying an acoustic-based wood density estimate indicated that the expected magnitude of the error arising from predicting dt, co, sa, wt, me, and ma prediction would be in the order of ±8%, ±12%, ±12%, ±13%, ±20%, and ±39% of their true values, respectively. Assessment of the utility of predicting the prerequisite wd estimate using micro-drill resistance measures revealed that the amplitude-based wd estimate was inconsequentially more precise than that obtained from vd (≈ <2%). A discourse regarding the potential utility and limitations of the acoustic-based computational suite for forecasting jack pine end-product potential was also articulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood quality; dilatational stress wave velocity; absolute and relative error intervals; Resistograph wood quality; dilatational stress wave velocity; absolute and relative error intervals; Resistograph
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Newton, P.F. Acoustic-Based Prediction of End-Product-Based Fibre Determinates within Standing Jack Pine Trees. Forests 2019, 10, 605.

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