Next Article in Journal
Assessing Landscape Fire Hazard by Multitemporal Automatic Classification of Landsat Time Series Using the Google Earth Engine in West-Central Spain
Next Article in Special Issue
Survival, Height Growth, and Phytoextraction Potential of Hybrid Poplar and Russian Olive (Elaeagnus Angustifolia L.) Established on Soils Varying in Salinity in North Dakota, USA
Previous Article in Journal
Orthotropic Tension Behavior of Two Typical Chinese Plantation Woods at Wide Relative Humidity Range
Previous Article in Special Issue
Productivity, Growth Patterns, and Cellulosic Pulp Properties of Hybrid Aspen Clones

Tree Willow Root Growth in Sediments Varying in Texture

Sustainable Production Group, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Institut de recherche en biologie végétale, Montreal, QC H1X 2B2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(6), 517;
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
We investigated the early root development of Salix nigra L. willow grown from cuttings in the different riverbank sediments; silt, sand and stones. Cuttings were grown for 10 weeks in layered sediment types in five large planter boxes, each box having three separate compartments. The boxes differed in the proportion of silt, sand and stones. At 10 weeks, the roots were extracted and sorted into diameter classes (≥2 mm; 1 < 2 mm; <1 mm) according to sediment type and depth. Root length and dry mass were measured and root length density (RLD) and root mass density (RMD) calculated. Root development of S. nigra cuttings varied with the substrate, either silt, sand or stones. Roots initiated from the entire length of the cutting in the substrate but with a concentration of initials located at the bottom and close to the bottom of the cutting. There was substantial root extension into all three substrates and at all depths. Generally, RMD was higher in the stones, influenced by having the bottom of the cuttings in stones for four of the five treatments. RMD was highest for roots <1 mm diameter. RMD of roots <1 mm diameter was least for those roots growing in sand. Whereas RLD for roots >0.5 mm diameter was highest in the sand, RLD of roots with diameter <0.5 mm was lowest in sand. Roots of S. nigra cuttings were least effective in binding sand, primarily because of low RLD of roots <0.5 mm diameter. It is surmised that sand lacks water and nutrients sufficient to sustain growth of fine roots compared with silt and even stones. RLD for roots >0.5 mm diameter was lowest in silt likely due to the greater resistance of the substrate to root penetration, or possibly the greater investment into smaller roots with absorption capability. View Full-Text
Keywords: coarse root; fine root; cutting; silt; sand; stone; Salix nigra L. coarse root; fine root; cutting; silt; sand; stone; Salix nigra L.
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

McIvor, I.; Desrochers, V. Tree Willow Root Growth in Sediments Varying in Texture. Forests 2019, 10, 517.

AMA Style

McIvor I, Desrochers V. Tree Willow Root Growth in Sediments Varying in Texture. Forests. 2019; 10(6):517.

Chicago/Turabian Style

McIvor, Ian, and Valérie Desrochers. 2019. "Tree Willow Root Growth in Sediments Varying in Texture" Forests 10, no. 6: 517.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop