Reconstruction of June–July Temperatures Based on a 233 Year Tree-Ring of Picea jezoensis var. microsperma
Experimental Teaching Center, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, China
School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
College of Life Sciences, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, China
College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Dalian Minzu University, Dalian 116600, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(5), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050416
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
In this study, ring-width chronology of Picea jezoensis var. microsperma from the Changbai Mountain (CBM) area, Northeast China, was constructed. Growth/climate responses suggested that mean maximum temperature (Tmax) was the limiting factor affecting radial growth of PJ trees in the study region. According to the correlation analysis between the ring-width index and meteorological data, a June–July mean maximum temperature (Tmax6–7) series between 1772 and 2004 was reconstructed by using the standard chronology. For the calibration period (1959–2004), the explained variance of the reconstruction was 41.6%. During the last 233 years, there were 36 warm years and 34 cold years, accounting for 15.5% and 14.7% of the total reconstruction years, respectively. Cold periods occurred in 1899–1913, 1955–1970, and 1975–1989, while warm periods occurred in 1881–1888. The reconstructed temperature series corresponded to the historical disaster records of extreme climatic events (e.g., drought and flood disasters) in this area. Comparisons with other temperature reconstructions from surrounding areas and spatial correlation analysis between the gridded temperature data and reconstruction series indicated that the regional climatic variations were well captured by the reconstruction. In addition, multi-taper method spectral analysis indicated the existence of significant periodicities in the reconstructed series. The significant spatial correlations between the reconstructed temperature series and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), solar activity, and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) suggested that the temperature in the CBM area indicated both local-regional climate signals and global-scale climate changes.