Next Article in Journal
Growth, Biomass Production and Root Development of Chinese fir in Relation to Initial Planting Density
Next Article in Special Issue
The Use of Low-Altitude UAV Imagery to Assess Western Juniper Density and Canopy Cover in Treated and Untreated Stands
Previous Article in Journal
Creating Landscape-Scale Site Index Maps for the Southeastern US Is Possible with Airborne LiDAR and Landsat Imagery
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for Collecting Thematic Map Accuracy Assessment Reference Data in New England Forests
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Short Rotation Coppice: Seed and Stump Shoot Reproduction as well as UAS-based Spreading Analysis

1
Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
Forestry and Ecosystem Management, University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, Leipziger Strasse 77, 99085 Erfurt, Germany
3
Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Muenster, Heisenbergstrasse 2, 48149 Muenster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(3), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030235
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forestry Applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs))
  |  
PDF [10066 KB, uploaded 8 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Varying reproduction strategies are an important trait that tree species need in order both to survive and to spread. Black locust is able to reproduce via seeds, stump shoots, and root suckers. However, little research has been conducted on the reproduction and spreading of black locust in short rotation coppices. This research study focused on seed germination, stump shoot resprout, and spreading by root suckering of black locust in ten short rotation coppices in Germany. Seed experiments and sample plots were analyzed for the study. Spreading was detected and measured with unmanned aerial system (UAS)-based images and classification technology—object-based image analysis (OBIA). Additionally, the classification of single UAS images was tested by applying a convolutional neural network (CNN), a deep learning model. The analyses showed that seed germination increases with increasing warm-cold variety and scarification. Moreover, it was found that the number of shoots per stump decreases as shoot age increases. Furthermore, spreading increases with greater light availability and decreasing tillage. The OBIA and CNN image analysis technologies achieved 97% and 99.5% accuracy for black locust classification in UAS images. All in all, the three reproduction strategies of black locust in short rotation coppices differ with regards to initialization, intensity, and growth performance, but all play a role in the survival and spreading of black locust. View Full-Text
Keywords: Robinia pseudoacacia L.; reproduction; spreading; short rotation coppice; unmanned aerial system (UAS); object-based image analysis (OBIA); convolutional neural network (CNN) Robinia pseudoacacia L.; reproduction; spreading; short rotation coppice; unmanned aerial system (UAS); object-based image analysis (OBIA); convolutional neural network (CNN)
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Carl, C.; Lehmann, J.R.K.; Landgraf, D.; Pretzsch, H. Robinia pseudoacacia L. in Short Rotation Coppice: Seed and Stump Shoot Reproduction as well as UAS-based Spreading Analysis. Forests 2019, 10, 235.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top