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Lessons Learned from Arson Wildfire Incidence in Reforestations and Natural Stands in Spain

1
German Aerospace Center (DLR), German Remote Data Center (DFD), Münchener Str. 20, 82234 Wessling, Germany
2
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, Piazzale delle Cascine 18, 50144 Florence, Italy
3
Department of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
4
Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia, Ctra. Sant Llorenç de Morunys km 2, Solsona 25280, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(3), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10030229
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
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Abstract

Wildfires are currently considered the major threat to forests in Mediterranean countries. It has been implied that a large percentage of arson-caused fires in Spain are connected with the extensive reforestation programs implemented between 1940 and 1970. However, no consistent studies have been conducted to study the relationships between arson-caused fires and stand origin. Therefore, the goal of this study was to analyze occurrences and model the influence of forest stand origin (artificial or not) on the development of wildfires in peninsular Spain. Twenty-one neural network models were trained to estimate fire incidence through fire type (surface or crown fire), burned area and total treed burned area, based on stand age (years), canopy cover (%), natural age class (from seedling to mature stages) and fuel type classification. Models were built for reforested stands and natural stands of Pinus pinaster Ait., the Mediterranean pines Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra Arn., Pinus halepensis Mill. and Eucalyptus sp. L’Hér., or groups of these species, and the resulting models were compared. Reforested stands presented higher fire incidence than natural stands mainly for productive species like Pinus pinaster Ait. According to the fire type models, thickets had a large influence in the development of crown fires in reforested stands in a general model for all species, the model with the Mediterranean group of pines, and the Pinus pinaster Ait. model. Vertical continuity influenced crown fire propagation in natural Mediterranean pines and in Eucalyptus stands. Presence of shrubs, grasslands and wood slash was related to surface fires in models for both reforested and natural stands. The results suggested that stand origin was influential on fire incidence, at least with regard to fire type and commercial species in the northwestern region of Spain. View Full-Text
Keywords: wildfires; fire type; neural networks; reforested stands; not reforested stands wildfires; fire type; neural networks; reforested stands; not reforested stands
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Da Ponte, E.; Costafreda-Aumedes, S.; Vega-Garcia, C. Lessons Learned from Arson Wildfire Incidence in Reforestations and Natural Stands in Spain. Forests 2019, 10, 229.

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