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Infection Levels of the Microsporidium Larssoniella duplicati in Populations of the Invasive Bark Beetle Ips duplicatus: From Native to New Outbreak Areas
Open AccessArticle

Shallow Genetic Structure among the European Populations of the Six-Toothed Bark Beetle Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

1
Forest Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization Demeter, Vassilika, 57006 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Institute of Silviculture and Forest Protection, University of Sopron, H-9400 Sopron, Hungary
3
Department of Ecology, University of Alicante, 3690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Spain
4
Sanidad Agricola Econex S.L., 30149 Siscar–Santomera, Murcia, Spain
5
Croatian Forest Research Institute, Cvjetno naselje 41, 10450 Jastrebarsko, Croatia
6
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
7
Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Boku, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1190 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10020136
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
The six-toothed bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus, is one of the most abundant scolytid species of the central and southern European countries. It mostly feeds on Pinus sp., whereas during population outbreaks it can also attack Picea sp. In spite of its broad distribution, its phylogeography has never been studied before. To do that, we employed an mtDNA marker on 489 individuals that covered most of its native range in Europe. Geographic distribution of the 86 haplotypes showed that at least three glacial refugia have played a significant role in shaping the currently observed pattern of genetic divergence in Europe, without excluding the contribution of minor refugial areas that acted in a similar manner. The revealed shallow structure can be considered an artifact of factors that reduced intraspecific diversity, at the same time favoring gene flow. As such, biological traits of the species itself (flying ability and host preference) and even human-mediated transport of wood seem to be the most prevailing and probable reasons that gave rise to the observed pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ips sexdentatus; Scolytinae; mtDNA; phylogeography; flying ability; human-mediated transport Ips sexdentatus; Scolytinae; mtDNA; phylogeography; flying ability; human-mediated transport
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Avtzis, D.N.; Lakatos, F.; Gallego, D.; Pernek, M.; Faccoli, M.; Wegensteiner, R.; Stauffer, C. Shallow Genetic Structure among the European Populations of the Six-Toothed Bark Beetle Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Forests 2019, 10, 136.

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