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Open AccessArticle

Real-Time Tumor Motion Tracking in 3D Using Planning 4D CT Images during Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

1
Division of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
2
Bio-Medical IT Convergence Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 34129, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Algorithms 2018, 11(10), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/a11100155
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
In this paper we propose a novel method for tracking the respiratory phase and 3D tumor position in real time during treatment. The method uses planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) obtained through the respiratory phase, and a kV projection taken during treatment. First, digitally rendered radiographs (DRRs) are generated from the 4DCT, and the structural similarity (SSIM) between the DRRs and the kV projection is computed to determine the current respiratory phase and magnitude. The 3D position of the tumor corresponding to the phase and magnitude is estimated using non-rigid registration by utilizing the tumor path segmented in the 4DCT. This method is evaluated using data from six patients with lung cancer and dynamic diaphragm phantom data. The method performs well irrespective of the gantry angle used, i.e., a respiration phase tracking accuracy of 97.2 ± 2.5%, and tumor tracking error in 3D of 0.9 ± 0.4 mm. The phantom study reveals that the DRRs match the actual projections well. The time taken to track the tumor is 400 ± 53 ms. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a technique used to track the respiratory phase and 3D tumor position in real time using kV fluoroscopy acquired from arbitrary angles around the freely breathing patient. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung tumor tracking; 4D computed tomography; diaphragm tracking; radiotherapy; image-guided radiation therapy; image registration lung tumor tracking; 4D computed tomography; diaphragm tracking; radiotherapy; image-guided radiation therapy; image registration
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Choi, J.-H.; Lee, S. Real-Time Tumor Motion Tracking in 3D Using Planning 4D CT Images during Image-Guided Radiation Therapy. Algorithms 2018, 11, 155.

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