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Materials 2016, 9(8), 619;

Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

Instituto de Fisiología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 14 sur 6301, Col. San Manuel, 72570 Puebla, Mexico
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Alberto Sols”, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Arturo Duperier, 4, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Veracruzana, Calzada Ruiz Cortines 455, Boca del Río, 94294 Veracruz, Mexico
Centro de Investigación en Micro y Nanotecnología, Calzada Ruiz Cortines 455, Boca del Río, 94294 Veracruz, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jordi Sort
Received: 10 June 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
PDF [3130 KB, uploaded 26 July 2016]


Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C) toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm). Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; sensors; cytotoxicity; titanium; titanium dioxide; MTT biocompatibility; sensors; cytotoxicity; titanium; titanium dioxide; MTT

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Cervantes, B.; López-Huerta, F.; Vega, R.; Hernández-Torres, J.; García-González, L.; Salceda, E.; Herrera-May, A.L.; Soto, E. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro. Materials 2016, 9, 619.

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