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Open AccessArticle

Microwave Crystallization of Lithium Aluminum Germanium Phosphate Solid-State Electrolyte

1
Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
2
Department of Fabrication Technology, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute (ATNMRI), City of Scientific Research and Technological Application (SRTA), New Borg Al-Arab City, Alexandria 21934, Egypt
3
Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dinesh Agrawal
Materials 2016, 9(7), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9070506
Received: 11 March 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Materials Processing)
Lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) glass-ceramics are considered as promising solid-state electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. LAGP glass was prepared via the regular conventional melt-quenching method. Thermal, chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize the prepared glass. The crystallization of the prepared LAGP glass was done using conventional heating and high frequency microwave (MW) processing. Thirty GHz microwave (MW) processing setup were used to convert the prepared LAGP glass into glass-ceramics and compared with the conventionally crystallized LAGP glass-ceramics that were heat-treated in an electric conventional furnace. The ionic conductivities of the LAGP samples obtained from the two different routes were measured using impedance spectroscopy. These samples were also characterized using XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microwave processing was successfully used to crystallize LAGP glass into glass-ceramic without the aid of susceptors. The MW treated sample showed higher total, grains and grain boundary ionic conductivities values, lower activation energy and relatively larger-grained microstructure with less porosity compared to the corresponding conventionally treated sample at the same optimized heat-treatment conditions. The enhanced total, grains and grain boundary ionic conductivities values along with the reduced activation energy that were observed in the MW treated sample was considered as an experimental evidence for the existence of the microwave effect in LAGP crystallization process. MW processing is a promising candidate technology for the production of solid-state electrolytes for Li-ion battery. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwaves; crystallization; LAGP; ionic conductivity; solid-state electrolyte; Li-ion batteries microwaves; crystallization; LAGP; ionic conductivity; solid-state electrolyte; Li-ion batteries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahmoud, M.M.; Cui, Y.; Rohde, M.; Ziebert, C.; Link, G.; Seifert, H.J. Microwave Crystallization of Lithium Aluminum Germanium Phosphate Solid-State Electrolyte. Materials 2016, 9, 506.

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