Application of a Loop-Type Laboratory Biofilm Reactor to the Evaluation of Biofilm for Some Metallic Materials and Polymers such as Urinary Stents and Catheters
2.1. Specimens and LBR
2.2. Evaluation of Biofilms
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Metallic Specimens
3.2. Polymer Specimens
- The closed loop-type LBR devised for this study could be used as a new accelerated LBR for the evaluation of materials found in urinary systems. Biofilms formed in short periods of time (48–72 h) using either residential microbiota or E-coli.
- 3D optical microscopy proved to analyze metallic materials as their as-received surface profiles were relatively smooth. The method employed was semi-quantitative for biofilm evaluation.
- The 3D surface profiles suggest that the single-strain system highlighted the biofilm more clearly than the mixed resident microbiota, and that copper’s antimicrobial effect could control biofilm formation.
- Raman spectroscopy proved useful for both metallic and polymer materials when combined with the loop-type LBR. A qualitative analysis of the Raman findings revealed that the EPS in the biofilm containing the carbon compounds attached to the specimens’ surfaces due to the stickiness of the biofilm.
Conflicts of Interest
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