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Open AccessArticle

Soft X-ray Exposure Promotes Na Intercalation in Graphene Grown on Si-Face SiC

1
Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping S-58183, Sweden
2
MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund S-22100, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jan Ingo Flege
Materials 2015, 8(8), 4768-4777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8084768
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epitaxial Materials 2015)
An investigation of how electron/photon beam exposures affect the intercalation rate of Na deposited on graphene prepared on Si-face SiC is presented. Focused radiation from a storage ring is used for soft X-ray exposures while the electron beam in a low energy electron microscope is utilized for electron exposures. The microscopy and core level spectroscopy data presented clearly show that the effect of soft X-ray exposure is significantly greater than of electron exposure, i.e., it produces a greater increase in the intercalation rate of Na. Heat transfer from the photoelectrons generated during soft X-ray exposure and by the electrons penetrating the sample during electron beam exposure is suggested to increase the local surface temperature and thus the intercalation rate. The estimated electron flux density is 50 times greater for soft X-ray exposure compared to electron exposure, which explains the larger increase in the intercalation rate from soft X-ray exposure. Effects occurring with time only at room temperature are found to be fairly slow, but detectable. The graphene quality, i.e., domain/grain size and homogeneity, was also observed to be an important factor since exposure-induced effects occurred more rapidly on a graphene sample prepared in situ compared to on a furnace grown sample. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene on Si-face SiC; intercalation of Na; soft X-ray exposure; electron exposure graphene on Si-face SiC; intercalation of Na; soft X-ray exposure; electron exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Watcharinyanon, S.; Xia, C.; Niu, Y.; Zakharov, A.A.; Johansson, L.I.; Yakimova, R.; Virojanadara, C. Soft X-ray Exposure Promotes Na Intercalation in Graphene Grown on Si-Face SiC. Materials 2015, 8, 4768-4777.

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