Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material
|No.||Type of Biomass||Quantity/Annum (Mt)|
|1||Empty fruit bunch (EFB)||15.8|
|3||Mesocarp fibre (MF)||9.6|
2. Experimental Programme
|Average size, D (v, 0.5)||27.98 μm||20.97 μm|
|Passing 10.48 μm (%)||27.58||37.86|
|Retained 10.48 μm, Passing 48.27 μm (%)||45.80||34.05|
|Retained 48.27 μm (%)||26.62||28.09|
2.2. Mix Proportion and Method
|Mix ID||Sand (kg/L)||Cement (kg/L)||POC Powder (kg/L)||W/B||Superplasticizer (SP) Dosage (%)|
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Fresh Properties
3.2. Hardened Properties
3.2.1. Compressive Strength
3.2.2. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV)
3.2.3. Flexural Strength
3.2.4. Water Absorption
3.2.5. Structural Efficiency
3.2.6. Microstructure Analysis
3.3. Sustainability Performance
3.3.1. Cost Factor
3.3.2. Carbon Emissions
3.3.3. Energy efficiency
- It could also reduce the cost of production of medium strength hardened specimens. Despite replacing cement at 50%, POC powder specimens managed to produce almost 70% of the strength when compared to control specimens. Besides that, POC powder samples managed to achieve 60% structural efficiency of that of normal mortar. These satisfactory results indicate suitability of using POC powder for mass concreting works.
- Economically, the cost of construction can be reduced without forgoing vital engineering performance. POC powder incorporation managed to reduce the cost of mortar by 41% compared to control specimen. ECI values showed substantial improvement when POC powder is replaced with cement.
- The carbon emission was lowered by 52% when POC powder is used. Besides that, EEI values for all replacement levels was higher compared to control specimens indicating the environmental friendliness of the material.
- As the world is moving towards the concept of reducing, recycling and reusing (3R), the utilization of POC will not only help to provide an alternative binder material but also help in terms of proper disposal. The exploitation of natural resources can be decreased through the redirection of waste materials in the production stages. This will ensure the availability of natural resources for future generations. The sustainability of the construction industry can be enhanced as there will be an alternative supply of cement instead of using natural resources.
- Certain concreting works that require a lower cost but high engineering efficiency may gain advantages. For example, concrete repair and rehabilitation works, which require high flowable mixes and above normal strength, may benefit by utilizing blended cement at a much lower cost. From an environmental perspective, the inclusion of POC powder as a replacement material for cement tends to improve the cost factor, energy usage and ideal emission factor.
Conflicts of Interest
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Kanadasan, J.; Abdul Razak, H. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material. Materials 2015, 8, 8817-8838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8125494
Kanadasan J, Abdul Razak H. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material. Materials. 2015; 8(12):8817-8838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8125494Chicago/Turabian Style
Kanadasan, Jegathish, and Hashim Abdul Razak. 2015. "Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material" Materials 8, no. 12: 8817-8838. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8125494