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Open AccessArticle

Flash Thermography to Evaluate Porosity in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs)

Department of Industrial Engineering—Aerospace Division, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy
Italian Aerospace Research Centre, via Maiorise sn, 81043 Capua (CE), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1483-1501;
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fibers)
It is a fact that the presence of porosity in composites has detrimental effects on their mechanical properties. Then, due to the high probability of void formation during manufacturing processes, it is necessary to have the availability of non-destructive evaluation techniques, which may be able to discover the presence and the distribution of porosity in the final parts. In recent years, flash thermography has emerged as the most valuable method, but it is still not adequately enclosed in the industrial enterprise. The main reason of this is the lack of sufficient quantitative data for a full validation of such a technique. The intention of the present work is to supply an overview on the current state-of-the-art regarding the use of flash thermography to evaluate the porosity percentage in fiber reinforced composite materials and to present the latest results, which are gathered by the authors, on porous carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. To this end, several coupons of two different stacking sequences and including a different amount of porosity are fabricated and inspected with both non-destructive and destructive testing techniques. Data coming from non-destructive testing with either flash thermography or ultrasonics are plotted against the porosity percentage, which was previously estimated with the volumetric method. The new obtained results are a witness to the efficacy of flash thermography. Some key points that need further consideration are also highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: composites; porosity evaluation; flash thermography composites; porosity evaluation; flash thermography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meola, C.; Toscano, C. Flash Thermography to Evaluate Porosity in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRPs). Materials 2014, 7, 1483-1501.

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