# Effect of Different Fineness of Cement on the Autogenous Shrinkage of Mass Concrete under Variable Temperature Conditions

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{3}S, C

_{3}A, C

_{2}S, C

_{4}AF, and their hydration reaction equations are [30].

_{3}S + 6H→C

_{3}S

_{2}H

_{3}+ 3CH

_{2}S + 4H→C

_{3}S

_{2}H

_{3}+ CH

_{3}A + 6H→C

_{3}AH

_{6}

_{4}AF + 2CH + 10H→C

_{3}AH

_{6}+ 3C

_{3}FH

_{6}

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Raw Material and Mixing Ratio

#### 2.1.1. Raw Materials

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}. The specific surface areas were measured by using Burr’s specific surface area tester (Jianyi Instrument Co., Ltd. Wuxi, China) as 300, 327, 373, and 377 m

^{2}/kg, and the fineness of the four types of cement was measured by using a negative pressure sieve analyzer as 12.21 μm, 7.62 μm, 4.18 μm, and 3.44 μm, respectively. The manufacturer is yarn screening factory (Zhejiang, China). The fineness of the four types of cement was 12.21 μm, 7.62 μm, 4.18 μm, and 3.44 μm, and the four cement numbers were C

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}. The experimental S95 mineral powder and secondary fly ash were sourced from Nanjing Pudi (Nanjing, China). The experimental high-performance polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent was sourced from Nanjing Sobute (Nanjing, China). The chemical composition of cement, mineral powder, and fly ash is shown in Table 1; the mineral composition of cement is shown in Figure 3; the slag is shown in Figure 4; the fly ash is shown in Figure 5; the particle size distribution of cement is shown in Figure 6.

#### 2.1.2. Mixing Ratio

#### 2.2. Experimental and Test Methods

#### 2.2.1. Simulation of the Temperature Variation of Silicate Concrete

#### 2.2.2. Compressive Strength Test of Silicate Concrete

#### 2.2.3. Shrinkage Test of Silicate Concrete

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}in batches, and then pour the concrete into the shrinkage test device, with the device numbers C

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}in sequence. The concrete was poured to a height of 400 mm. During that time the strain gage was placed in the middle of the concrete to ensure that the gage takes uniform stress data, and 20 mm of liquid paraffin was poured into the upper part of the concrete after the concrete had set to insulate the upper part. This was covered with the same sealing lid as the bottom and the mold was used for measuring the autogenous shrinkage into the variable temperature maintenance box. The initial setting time of concrete was used as the starting point for measuring the autogenous shrinkage strain. The data collection device (a) and curing box (b) are shown in Figure 11.

#### 2.2.4. Pore Structure Test of Silicate Cement Paste

## 3. Results and Analysis

#### 3.1. Effect of Silicate Cement of Different Fineness on the Compressive Strength of Concrete under Different Temperature Conditions

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}is 68.5%, 73.47%, 81.17%, and 78.21%, respectively. At 3 days, the compressive strength of C

_{60}, the finest particle, reached 57.4 MPa, compared with 56.5 MPa for C

_{50}, 51.8 MPa for C

_{40}, and 48.7 MPa for C

_{30}. At 60 days, the compressive strengths reached 69.9 MPa, 66.3 MPa, 59 MPa, and 57.1 MPa, respectively. The compressive strength is negatively correlated with the fineness of cement particles, and the different concrete strength values at intermediate ages follow the above rule.

_{60}is 85.29% of the 60-day compressive strength of concrete, the 3-day compressive strength of concrete for C

_{50}is 87.80% of the 60-day compressive strength of concrete, the 3-day compressive strength of concrete for C

_{40}is 85.22% of the 60-day compressive strength of concrete, and the 3-day compressive strength of concrete for C

_{30}is 82.12% of the 60-day compressive strength of concrete. The finer the particle size of the cement, the higher the proportion of the 3-day compressive strength to the 60-day strength. As the age increases, the value of strength increases per unit of time decreases. The average compressive strength increase from 3 to 7 days was 2.75 MPa, with an average increase of 0.69 MPa per day. The average compressive strength increase from 7 to 28 days was 4.225 MPa, with an average increase of 0.22 MPa per day. The average compressive strength increase from 28 to 60 days was 3.1 MPa, with an average increase of 0.097 MPa per day.

#### 3.2. Effect of Silicate Cement with Different Fineness on the Autogenous Shrinkage of Silicate Concrete

#### 3.2.1. Effect of Silicate Cement of Different Fineness on the Total deformation of Silicate Concrete

_{t}= k × (F

_{t}− F

_{0}) + b × (T

_{t}− T

_{0})

^{−6}/F;

_{t}—the measured value of the strain gauge strain at moment t in F;

_{0}—the reference value of the strain gauge for concrete deformation in F;

_{t}—the measured value of the temperature of the strain gauge at the moment t, in °C;

_{0}—the temperature reference value of the concrete deformation in °C;

^{−6}/°C for this experiment.

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}, corresponding to −92 με, −193 με, −273 με, and −274 με at 14 days, respectively, the line 0 in Figure 13 is the reference line of total volume deformation, and the shrinkage of concrete gradually stabilized after more than 14 days. The finer the cement particles, the earlier the corresponding concrete begins to shrink in volume under the same variable temperature conditions, and the greater the total shrinkage at the same age.

#### 3.2.2. Effect of Different Fineness of Silicate Cement on the Autogenous Shrinkage of Silicate Concrete

_{t}= k × (F

_{t}− F

_{0}) + (b − α) × (T

_{t}− T

_{0})

_{t}—the autogenous shrinkage deformation of silicate concrete;

^{−6}/F;

_{t}—the measured value of the strain gauge at the moment t, in F;

_{0}—the reference value of the strain gauge for concrete deformation in F;

_{t}—the measured value of the temperature of the strain gauge at the moment t, in °C;

_{0}—the temperature reference value of the concrete deformation in °C;

^{−6}/°C for this experiment;

^{−6}/°C.

_{60}microstrain was −80 με. The microstrains of concrete in groups C

_{30}, C

_{40}, and C

_{50}are 72 με, −19 με, and −74 με, respectively, the line 0 in Figure 14 is the reference line of autogenous shrinkage, which differ from group C

_{60}by 152 με, 61 με, and 6 με, respectively. It can be seen from Figure 14 that the concrete autogenous shrinkage growth starts to slow down after 7 days, and this trend is 7 days ahead of the total volume deformation. At this time, the autogenous shrinkage microstrain of the two groups of concrete C

_{60}and C

_{50}with the finest particles are close. This trend is maintained during the age period of 7 days–28 days. This indicates that there are other factors besides the fineness of the cement that affect the size of the autogenous shrinkage of the concrete after 7 days of age. After 14 days, the autogenous shrinking microstrain of the concrete in the three groups was unchanged, and the hydration reaction was finished.

#### 3.3. Effect of Different Fineness of Silicate Cement on the Pore Size of Cement Paste

## 4. Microscopic Analysis of Cement Paste

_{30}, C

_{40}, C

_{50}, and C

_{60}in a, b, c, and d of Figure 16, respectively.

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- Under variable temperature conditions, the finer the cement particles, the faster the compressive strength of concrete grows. When the test age increases, the less the compressive strength of concrete increases per unit of time.
- (2)
- The finer the cement particles are, the greater the total volume deformation and self-shrinkage of the concrete, and the earlier the shrinkage begins during the 28-day temperature change course.
- (3)
- Throughout the variable temperature phase, temperature is not the only dominant factor affecting the total volume deformation of concrete. In 1–7 days, the self-shrinkage produced by cement hydration becomes the main factor affecting the total volume, so the study of the total volume deformation of concrete under variable temperature conditions should be divided into three stages.
- (4)
- The high-temperature environment at an early age promotes the hydration reaction of cement and reduces the difference of porosity of net cement paste with different fineness, but the smaller the fineness of cement, the greater the proportion of harmless pores in cement paste and the smaller the proportion of multi-harmful pores. The compressive strength of concrete at the same age is mild with this phenomenon.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 11.**The device for measuring autogenous shrinkage (

**a**) and variable temperature curing box (

**b**).

**Figure 12.**Compressive strength of concrete at different ages under changing temperature curing conditions (

**a**) and 20 °C curing conditions (

**b**).

**Figure 14.**Spontaneous volume deformation of cement with different fineness at 14 d (

**a**) and 28 d (

**b**).

**Figure 16.**Microstructure of cement paste numbered C

_{30}(

**a**), C

_{40}(

**b**), C

_{50}(

**c**), and C

_{60}(

**d**).

Materials | SiO_{2} | Al_{2}O_{3} | Fe_{2}O_{3} | TiO_{2} | CaO | MgO | SO_{3} | K_{2}O | Na_{2}O | LOI | Total |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Cement | 18.55 | 3.95 | 3.41 | 0.207 | 65.32 | 1.01 | 2.78 | 0.721 | 0.176 | 2.88 | 99.004 |

Fly ash | 44.06 | 42.06 | 2.91 | 1.64 | 3.80 | 0.395 | 0.754 | 0.487 | 0.155 | 2.48 | 98.741 |

Slag | 33.39 | 11.89 | 0.630 | 0.483 | 41.51 | 8.82 | 1.32 | 0.527 | 0.672 | −0.28 | 98.962 |

Cement | Mineral Powder | Fly Ash | Water | Fine Aggregate | Coarse Aggregate | Water Reducer | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0–2.36 | 2.36–5 | 5–10 | 10–20 | 20–30 | |||||

360 | 40 | 90 | 157 | 136 | 544 | 220 | 550 | 330 | 9.8 |

Specimen | Porosity | Percentage of Each Type of Pore in the Total Pore | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Harmless Pores | Less Harmful Pores | Harmful Pores | Multihazardous Pores | ||

0–0.02 | 0.02–0.05 | 0.05–0.2 | >0.2 | ||

C_{30} | 24.51 | 29.16 | 35.82 | 18.1 | 16.92 |

C_{40} | 21.47 | 31.96 | 56.89 | 5.71 | 5.44 |

C_{50} | 24.2 | 36.4 | 46.87 | 12.07 | 4.66 |

C_{60} | 21.66 | 57.71 | 35.14 | 3.32 | 3.83 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gong, J.; Mao, Z.; Cao, Z.; Huang, X.; Deng, M.
Effect of Different Fineness of Cement on the Autogenous Shrinkage of Mass Concrete under Variable Temperature Conditions. *Materials* **2023**, *16*, 2367.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062367

**AMA Style**

Gong J, Mao Z, Cao Z, Huang X, Deng M.
Effect of Different Fineness of Cement on the Autogenous Shrinkage of Mass Concrete under Variable Temperature Conditions. *Materials*. 2023; 16(6):2367.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062367

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gong, Jiale, Zhongyang Mao, Zhe Cao, Xiaojun Huang, and Min Deng.
2023. "Effect of Different Fineness of Cement on the Autogenous Shrinkage of Mass Concrete under Variable Temperature Conditions" *Materials* 16, no. 6: 2367.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062367