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Article

Characterization of Charge States in Conducting Organic Nanoparticles by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy

1
Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
2
Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Materialien & Energie GmbH BESSY, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
3
Institute of Physics, Humboldt University, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
4
LCC-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arunas Ramanavicius
Materials 2021, 14(8), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082058
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 19 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Conductors)
The metallic and semiconducting character of a large family of organic materials based on the electron donor molecule tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) is rooted in the partial oxidation (charge transfer or mixed valency) of TTF derivatives leading to partially filled molecular orbital-based electronic bands. The intrinsic structure of such complexes, with segregated donor and acceptor molecular chains or planes, leads to anisotropic electronic properties (quasi one-dimensional or two-dimensional) and morphology (needle-like or platelet-like crystals). Recently, such materials have been synthesized as nanoparticles by intentionally frustrating the intrinsic anisotropic growth. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize the transfer of charge due to its ability to discriminate the different chemical environments or electronic configurations manifested by chemical shifts of core level lines in high-resolution spectra. Since the photoemission process is inherently fast (well below the femtosecond time scale), dynamic processes can be efficiently explored. We determine here the fingerprint of partial oxidation on the photoemission lines of nanoparticles of selected TTF-based conductors. View Full-Text
Keywords: conducting nanoparticles; tetrathiafulvalene; bis(ethilenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene; charge-transfer complexes; mixed-valence materials; X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; synchrotron radiation conducting nanoparticles; tetrathiafulvalene; bis(ethilenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene; charge-transfer complexes; mixed-valence materials; X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; synchrotron radiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fraxedas, J.; Vollmer, A.; Koch, N.; de Caro, D.; Jacob, K.; Faulmann, C.; Valade, L. Characterization of Charge States in Conducting Organic Nanoparticles by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy. Materials 2021, 14, 2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082058

AMA Style

Fraxedas J, Vollmer A, Koch N, de Caro D, Jacob K, Faulmann C, Valade L. Characterization of Charge States in Conducting Organic Nanoparticles by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy. Materials. 2021; 14(8):2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fraxedas, Jordi, Antje Vollmer, Norbert Koch, Dominique de Caro, Kane Jacob, Christophe Faulmann, and Lydie Valade. 2021. "Characterization of Charge States in Conducting Organic Nanoparticles by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy" Materials 14, no. 8: 2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082058

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