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Article

Neutron and X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Macro and Phase-Specific Micro Residual Stresses in Deep Rolled Duplex Stainless Steels

1
Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstraße 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, 250 68 Řež, Czech Republic
3
Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), TU München, D-85748 Garching, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081854
Received: 5 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 31 March 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
Experimental analyses of depth distributions of phase-specific residual stresses after deep rolling were carried out by means of laboratory X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction for the two duplex steels X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 and X3CrNiMoN27-5-2, which differ significantly in their ferrite to austenite ratios. The aim of the investigation was to elucidate to which extent comparable results can be achieved with the destructive and the non-destructive approach and how the process induced phase-specific micro residual stresses influence the determination of the phase- and {hkl}-specific reference value d0, required for evaluation of neutron strain scanning experiments. A further focus of the work was the applicability of correction approaches that were developed originally for single-phase materials for accounting for spurious strains during through surface neutron scanning experiments on coarse two-phase materials. The depth distributions of macro residual stresses were separated from the phase-specific micro residual stresses. In this regard, complementary residual stress analysis was carried out by means of incremental hole drilling. The results indicate that meaningful macro residual stress depth distributions can be determined non-destructively by means of neutron diffraction for depths starting at about 150–200 µm. Furthermore, it was shown that the correction of the instrumental surface effects, which are intrinsic for surface neutron strain scanning, through neutron ray-tracing simulation is applicable to multiphase materials and yields reliable results. However, phase-specific micro residual stresses determined by means of neutron diffraction show significant deviations to data determined by means of lab X-ray stress analysis according to the well-known sin2ψ-method. View Full-Text
Keywords: residual stress measurement; phase specific stress; macro stress; phase-specific micro residual stresses; duplex steel; neutron diffraction; surface effect; phase specific texture; soft X-ray sin2ψ; incremental hole drilling residual stress measurement; phase specific stress; macro stress; phase-specific micro residual stresses; duplex steel; neutron diffraction; surface effect; phase specific texture; soft X-ray sin2ψ; incremental hole drilling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pulvermacher, S.; Bücker, T.; Šaroun, J.; Rebelo-Kornmeier, J.; Hofmann, M.; Gibmeier, J. Neutron and X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Macro and Phase-Specific Micro Residual Stresses in Deep Rolled Duplex Stainless Steels. Materials 2021, 14, 1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081854

AMA Style

Pulvermacher S, Bücker T, Šaroun J, Rebelo-Kornmeier J, Hofmann M, Gibmeier J. Neutron and X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Macro and Phase-Specific Micro Residual Stresses in Deep Rolled Duplex Stainless Steels. Materials. 2021; 14(8):1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081854

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pulvermacher, Samuel, Tobias Bücker, Jan Šaroun, Joana Rebelo-Kornmeier, Michael Hofmann, and Jens Gibmeier. 2021. "Neutron and X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Macro and Phase-Specific Micro Residual Stresses in Deep Rolled Duplex Stainless Steels" Materials 14, no. 8: 1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081854

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