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Open AccessArticle

Greener Nanocomposite Polyurethane Foam Based on Sustainable Polyol and Natural Fillers: Investigation of Chemico-Physical and Mechanical Properties

1
Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials-CNR, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
2
AEP Polymers Srl, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy
3
Institute for Chemical Science and Technologies -CNR, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010211
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 4 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Energy and Environment)
Nowadays, the chemical industry is looking for sustainable chemicals to synthesize nanocomposite bio-based polyurethane foams, PUs, with the aim to replace the conventional petrochemical precursors. Some possibilities to increase the environmental sustainability in the synthesis of nanocomposite PUs include the use of chemicals and additives derived from renewable sources (such as vegetable oils or biomass wastes), which comprise increasingly wider base raw materials. Generally, sustainable PUs exhibit chemico-physical, mechanical and functional properties, which are not comparable with those of PUs produced from petrochemical precursors. In order to enhance the performances, as well as the bio-based aspect, the addition in the polyurethane formulation of renewable or natural fillers can be considered. Among these, walnut shells and cellulose are very popular wood-based waste, and due to their chemical composition, carbohydrate, protein and/or fatty acid, can be used as reactive fillers in the synthesis of Pus. Diatomite, as a natural inorganic nanoporous filler, can also be evaluated to improve mechanical and thermal insulation properties of rigid PUs. In this respect, sustainable nanocomposite rigid PU foams are synthesized by using a cardanol-based Mannich polyol, MDI (Methylene diphenyl isocyanate) as an isocyanate source, catalysts and surfactant to regulate the polymerization and blowing reactions, H2O as a sustainable blowing agent and a suitable amount (5 wt%) of ultramilled walnut shell, cellulose and diatomite as filler. The effect of these fillers on the chemico-physical, morphological, mechanical and functional performances on PU foams has been analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocomposite foams; milled walnut shell; milled cellulose; diatomite; sustainable polyurethane nanocomposite foams; milled walnut shell; milled cellulose; diatomite; sustainable polyurethane
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Luca Bossa, F.; Santillo, C.; Verdolotti, L.; Campaner, P.; Minigher, A.; Boggioni, L.; Losio, S.; Coccia, F.; Iannace, S.; Lama, G.C. Greener Nanocomposite Polyurethane Foam Based on Sustainable Polyol and Natural Fillers: Investigation of Chemico-Physical and Mechanical Properties. Materials 2020, 13, 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010211

AMA Style

De Luca Bossa F, Santillo C, Verdolotti L, Campaner P, Minigher A, Boggioni L, Losio S, Coccia F, Iannace S, Lama GC. Greener Nanocomposite Polyurethane Foam Based on Sustainable Polyol and Natural Fillers: Investigation of Chemico-Physical and Mechanical Properties. Materials. 2020; 13(1):211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010211

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Luca Bossa, Ferdinando; Santillo, Chiara; Verdolotti, Letizia; Campaner, Pietro; Minigher, Andrea; Boggioni, Laura; Losio, Simona; Coccia, Francesca; Iannace, Salvatore; Lama, Giuseppe C. 2020. "Greener Nanocomposite Polyurethane Foam Based on Sustainable Polyol and Natural Fillers: Investigation of Chemico-Physical and Mechanical Properties" Materials 13, no. 1: 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010211

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