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Open AccessArticle

CaCO3 as an Environmentally Friendly Renewable Material for Drug Delivery Systems: Uptake of HSA-CaCO3 Nanocrystals Conjugates in Cancer Cell Lines

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Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento & UdR INSTM di Lecce, Campus Universitario, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
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CNR NANOTEC - Istituto di Nanotecnologia c/o Campus Ecotekne, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
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Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Biotecnologie e Biofarmaceutica, Università degli Studi di Bari «Aldo Moro», Via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy
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Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale, Del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica (DICATECh), Politecnico di Bari Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
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Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies (IBIOM), CNR, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091481
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Renewable Materials)
Chemical and biochemical functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) can lead to an active cellular uptake enhancing their efficacy thanks to the targeted localization in tumors. In the present study calcium carbonate nano-crystals (CCNs), stabilized by an alcohol dehydration method, were successfully modified by grafting human serum albumin (HSA) on the surface to obtain a pure protein corona. Two types of CCNs were used: naked CaCO3 and the (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) modified CaCO3-NH2. The HSA conjugation with naked CCN and amino-functionalized CCN (CCN-NH2) was established through the investigation of modification in size, zeta potential, and morphology by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The amount of HSA coating on the CCNs surface was assessed by spectrophotometry. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the grafting of APTES to the surface and successive adsorption of HSA. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of protein complexation of CCNs on cellular behavior, bioavailability, and biological responses, three human model cancer cell lines, breast cancer (MCF7), cervical cancer (HeLa), and colon carcinoma (Caco-2) were selected to characterize the internalization kinetics, localization, and bio-interaction of the protein-enclosed CCNs. To monitor internalization of the various conjugates, chemical modification with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC) was performed, and their stability over time was measured. Confocal microscopy was used to probe the uptake and confirm localization in the perinuclear region of the cancer cells. Flow cytometry assays confirmed that the bio-functionalization influence cellular uptake and the CCNs behavior depends on both cell line and surface features. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium carbonate nanocrystals; protein corona; cellular uptake; human cancer models calcium carbonate nanocrystals; protein corona; cellular uptake; human cancer models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vergaro, V.; Pisano, I.; Grisorio, R.; Baldassarre, F.; Mallamaci, R.; Santoro, A.; Suranna, G.P.; Papadia, P.; Fanizzi, F.P.; Ciccarella, G. CaCO3 as an Environmentally Friendly Renewable Material for Drug Delivery Systems: Uptake of HSA-CaCO3 Nanocrystals Conjugates in Cancer Cell Lines. Materials 2019, 12, 1481. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091481

AMA Style

Vergaro V, Pisano I, Grisorio R, Baldassarre F, Mallamaci R, Santoro A, Suranna GP, Papadia P, Fanizzi FP, Ciccarella G. CaCO3 as an Environmentally Friendly Renewable Material for Drug Delivery Systems: Uptake of HSA-CaCO3 Nanocrystals Conjugates in Cancer Cell Lines. Materials. 2019; 12(9):1481. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091481

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vergaro, Viviana; Pisano, Isabella; Grisorio, Roberto; Baldassarre, Francesca; Mallamaci, Rosanna; Santoro, Antonella; Suranna, Gian P.; Papadia, Paride; Fanizzi, Francesco P.; Ciccarella, Giuseppe. 2019. "CaCO3 as an Environmentally Friendly Renewable Material for Drug Delivery Systems: Uptake of HSA-CaCO3 Nanocrystals Conjugates in Cancer Cell Lines" Materials 12, no. 9: 1481. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091481

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