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Open AccessArticle

4D Printing Self-Morphing Structures

1
Department of Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3
School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216, Australia
4
Department of Design and Mathematics, the University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081353
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
The main objective of this paper is to introduce complex structures with self-bending/morphing/rolling features fabricated by 4D printing technology, and replicate their thermo-mechanical behaviors using a simple computational tool. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is implemented to fabricate adaptive composite structures with performance-driven functionality built directly into materials. Structural primitives with self-bending 1D-to-2D features are first developed by functionally graded 4D printing. They are then employed as actuation elements to design complex structures that show 2D-to-3D shape-shifting by self-bending/morphing. The effects of printing speed on the self-bending/morphing characteristics are investigated in detail. Thermo-mechanical behaviors of the 4D-printed structures are simulated by introducing a straightforward method into the commercial finite element (FE) software package of Abaqus that is much simpler than writing a user-defined material subroutine or an in-house FE code. The high accuracy of the proposed method is verified by a comparison study with experiments and numerical results obtained from an in-house FE solution. Finally, the developed digital tool is implemented to engineer several practical self-morphing/rolling structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4D printing; shape memory polymer; self-morphing; experiments; FEM 4D printing; shape memory polymer; self-morphing; experiments; FEM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bodaghi, M.; Noroozi, R.; Zolfagharian, A.; Fotouhi, M.; Norouzi, S. 4D Printing Self-Morphing Structures. Materials 2019, 12, 1353.

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