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4D Printing Self-Morphing Structures

Department of Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216, Australia
Department of Design and Mathematics, the University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1353;
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
The main objective of this paper is to introduce complex structures with self-bending/morphing/rolling features fabricated by 4D printing technology, and replicate their thermo-mechanical behaviors using a simple computational tool. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is implemented to fabricate adaptive composite structures with performance-driven functionality built directly into materials. Structural primitives with self-bending 1D-to-2D features are first developed by functionally graded 4D printing. They are then employed as actuation elements to design complex structures that show 2D-to-3D shape-shifting by self-bending/morphing. The effects of printing speed on the self-bending/morphing characteristics are investigated in detail. Thermo-mechanical behaviors of the 4D-printed structures are simulated by introducing a straightforward method into the commercial finite element (FE) software package of Abaqus that is much simpler than writing a user-defined material subroutine or an in-house FE code. The high accuracy of the proposed method is verified by a comparison study with experiments and numerical results obtained from an in-house FE solution. Finally, the developed digital tool is implemented to engineer several practical self-morphing/rolling structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4D printing; shape memory polymer; self-morphing; experiments; FEM 4D printing; shape memory polymer; self-morphing; experiments; FEM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bodaghi, M.; Noroozi, R.; Zolfagharian, A.; Fotouhi, M.; Norouzi, S. 4D Printing Self-Morphing Structures. Materials 2019, 12, 1353.

AMA Style

Bodaghi M, Noroozi R, Zolfagharian A, Fotouhi M, Norouzi S. 4D Printing Self-Morphing Structures. Materials. 2019; 12(8):1353.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bodaghi, Mahdi, Reza Noroozi, Ali Zolfagharian, Mohamad Fotouhi, and Saeed Norouzi. 2019. "4D Printing Self-Morphing Structures" Materials 12, no. 8: 1353.

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