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Open AccessArticle

3D-Printed Polyester-Based Prototypes for Cosmetic Applications—Future Directions at the Forensic Engineering of Advanced Polymeric Materials

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Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34, M. Curie-Skłodowska St., 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
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Laboratorium Kosmetyczne Dr Irena Eris Sp. z o.o., R&D Department, 12 Armii Krajowej St., 05-500 Piaseczno, Poland
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Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(6), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060994
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Corrosion)
Knowledge of degradation and impairment phenomena of (bio)degradable polymeric materials under operating conditions, and thus the selection of test procedures and prediction of their behavior designates the scope and capabilities as well as possible limitations of both: the preparation of the final product and its durability. The main novelty and objective of this research was to determine the degradation pathways during testing of polylactide and polylactide/polyhydroxyalkanoate materials made with three-dimensional printing and the development of a new strategy for the comprehensive characterization of such complex systems including behavior during waste disposal. Prototype objects were subjected to tests for damage evolution performed under simulating operating conditions. The reference samples and the tested items were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry to determine changes in material properties. The studies showed that: polyhydroxyalkanoate component during accelerated aging and degradation in environments rich in microorganisms accelerated the degradation of the material; paraffin accelerates polylactide degradation and slows degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoate-based material; under the influence of an environment rich in enzymes, paraffin contamination accelerates biodegradation; under the influence of natural conditions, paraffin contamination slowed degradation; the processing conditions, in particular the printing orientation of individual parts of the container, influenced the material properties in its various regions, affecting the rate of degradation of individual parts. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional printing; (bio)degradable polyester; prototype container; compostability; biodegradability; weathering test three-dimensional printing; (bio)degradable polyester; prototype container; compostability; biodegradability; weathering test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rydz, J.; Sikorska, W.; Musioł, M.; Janeczek, H.; Włodarczyk, J.; Misiurska-Marczak, M.; Łęczycka, J.; Kowalczuk, M. 3D-Printed Polyester-Based Prototypes for Cosmetic Applications—Future Directions at the Forensic Engineering of Advanced Polymeric Materials. Materials 2019, 12, 994. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060994

AMA Style

Rydz J, Sikorska W, Musioł M, Janeczek H, Włodarczyk J, Misiurska-Marczak M, Łęczycka J, Kowalczuk M. 3D-Printed Polyester-Based Prototypes for Cosmetic Applications—Future Directions at the Forensic Engineering of Advanced Polymeric Materials. Materials. 2019; 12(6):994. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060994

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Musioł, Marta; Janeczek, Henryk; Włodarczyk, Jakub; Misiurska-Marczak, Marlena; Łęczycka, Justyna; Kowalczuk, Marek. 2019. "3D-Printed Polyester-Based Prototypes for Cosmetic Applications—Future Directions at the Forensic Engineering of Advanced Polymeric Materials" Materials 12, no. 6: 994. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060994

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