Next Article in Journal
Dielectric and Impedance Studies of (Ba,Ca)TiO3 Ceramics Obtained from Mechanically Synthesized Powders
Next Article in Special Issue
Beyond Lithium-Based Batteries
Previous Article in Journal
The Influence of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on the Dynamic Properties of Nematic Liquid Crystals in Magnetic Field
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparing Fly Ash Samples from Different Types of Incinerators for Their Potential as Storage Materials for Thermochemical Energy and CO2
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Biocarbon Meets Carbon—Humic Acid/Graphite Electrodes Formed by Mechanochemistry

Biomolecular and organic electronics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4032;
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Storage Materials)
Humic acid (HA) is a biopolymer formed from degraded plants, making it a ubiquitous, renewable, sustainable, and low cost source of biocarbon materials. HA contains abundant functional groups, such as carboxyl-, phenolic/alcoholic hydroxyl-, ketone-, and quinone/hydroquinone (Q/QH2)-groups. The presence of Q/QH2 groups makes HA redox active and, accordingly, HA is a candidate material for energy storage. However, as HA is an electronic insulator, it is essential to combine it with conductive materials in order to enable fabrication of HA electrodes. One of the lowest cost types of conductive materials that can be considered is carbon-based conductors such as graphite. Herein, we develop a facile method allowing the biocarbon to meet carbon; HA (in the form of a sodium salt) is mixed with graphite by a solvent-free mechanochemical method involving ball milling. Few-layer graphene sheets are formed and the HA/graphite mixtures can be used to fabricate HA/graphite hybrid material electrodes. These electrodes exhibit a conductivity of up to 160 S·m−1 and a discharge capacity as large as 20 mAhg−1. Our study demonstrates a novel methodology enabling scalable fabrication of low cost and sustainable organic electrodes for application as supercapacitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: mechanochemistry; humic acid; graphite; biocarbon; energy storage mechanochemistry; humic acid; graphite; biocarbon; energy storage
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, L.; Solin, N.; Inganäs, O. Biocarbon Meets Carbon—Humic Acid/Graphite Electrodes Formed by Mechanochemistry. Materials 2019, 12, 4032.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop