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Materials 2019, 12(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010169

Comparing the Through-Thickness Gradient of the Deformed and Recrystallized Microstructure in Tantalum with Unidirectional and Clock Rolling

1
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044, China
2
College of Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract

Controlling the microstructure homogeneity is crucial in achieving high quality tantalum (Ta) sputtering targets used in integrated circuit fabrication. Unluckily, traditional rolling easily generates a microstructure gradient along the thickness direction in Ta sheets. The deformation and recrystallization behavior of unidirectional and clock rolled Ta with an 87% strain were therefore systematically compared to investigate whether the change of strain-pass can effectively ameliorate the microstructure gradient along the thickness. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to analyze the misorientation characteristics of the deformed grains. A strong microstructure gradient exists in the unidirectional rolled (UR) sheets. Many microshear bands and well-defined microbands occurred in {111} deformed grains in the UR sheets, especially in the center region, while the grain fragmentation with {111} and {100} orientation in the clock rolled (CR) sheets was more homogenous along the thickness. The kernel average misorientation (KAM) and grain reference orientation deviation-hyper (GROD-Hyper) further confirmed these differences. X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA) indicated that the stored energy distribution was more inhomogeneous in the UR sheets. Schmid factor analysis suggested that the strain path changes due to clock rolling promoted the activation of multiple slip systems in {111} oriented grains. Upon static annealing, homogeneous nucleation combined with a slower grain growth rate resulted in finer and more uniform grain size for the CR sheet. In contrast, a strong recrystallization microstructure-gradient along the thickness formed in the UR sheets, which is attributed to the fact that the higher stored energy and more preferential nucleation sites led to faster recrystallization in the center region, as compared with the surface region. Thus, clock rolling can effectively improve the homogeneity of the through-thickness recrystallization microstructure of Ta sheets. View Full-Text
Keywords: tantalum; clock rolling; microstructure gradient; schmid factor tantalum; clock rolling; microstructure gradient; schmid factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhu, J.; Liu, S.; Yuan, X.; Liu, Q. Comparing the Through-Thickness Gradient of the Deformed and Recrystallized Microstructure in Tantalum with Unidirectional and Clock Rolling. Materials 2019, 12, 169.

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