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Phenotypic Variation during Biofilm Formation: Implications for Anti-Biofilm Therapeutic Design

1
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
2
Abcombi Biosciences Inc., 1576 Sweet Home Road, Amherst, NY 14228, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, NY 14260, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071086
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare: Formation, Prevention and Treatment)
Various bacterial species cycle between growth phases and biofilm formation, of which the latter facilitates persistence in inhospitable environments. These phases can be generally characterized by one or more cellular phenotype(s), each with distinct virulence factor functionality. In addition, a variety of phenotypes can often be observed within the phases themselves, which can be dependent on host conditions or the presence of nutrient and oxygen gradients within the biofilm itself (i.e., microenvironments). Currently, most anti-biofilm strategies have targeted a single phenotype; this approach has driven effective, yet incomplete, protection due to the lack of consideration of gene expression dynamics throughout the bacteria’s pathogenesis. As such, this article provides an overview of the distinct phenotypes found within each biofilm development phase and demonstrates the unique anti-biofilm solutions each phase offers. However, we conclude that a combinatorial approach must be taken to provide complete protection against biofilm forming bacterial and their resulting diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial biofilms; commensal bacteria; bacterial phenotypes; anti-biofilm strategies; anti-adhesion; dispersion bacterial biofilms; commensal bacteria; bacterial phenotypes; anti-biofilm strategies; anti-adhesion; dispersion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beitelshees, M.; Hill, A.; Jones, C.H.; Pfeifer, B.A. Phenotypic Variation during Biofilm Formation: Implications for Anti-Biofilm Therapeutic Design. Materials 2018, 11, 1086.

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