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Materials 2018, 11(5), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050756

Macrophage Biocompatibility of CoCr Wear Particles Produced under Polarization in Hyaluronic Acid Aqueous Solution

1
Cell-Biomaterial Recognition Lab., Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB-CSIC), Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Surface Engineering, Corrosion and Durability, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, 615 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Room 450A, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract

Macrophages are the main cells involved in inflammatory processes and in the primary response to debris derived from wear of implanted CoCr alloys. The biocompatibility of wear particles from a high carbon CoCr alloy produced under polarization in hyaluronic acid (HA) aqueous solution was evaluated in J774A.1 mouse macrophages cultures. Polarization was applied to mimic the electrical interactions observed in living tissues. Wear tests were performed in a pin-on-disk tribometer integrating an electrochemical cell in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and in PBS supplemented with 3 g/L HA, an average concentration that is generally found in synovial fluid, used as lubricant solution. Wear particles produced in 3 g/L HA solution showed a higher biocompatibility in J774A.1 macrophages in comparison to those elicited by particles obtained in PBS. A considerable enhancement in macrophages biocompatibility in the presence of 3 g/L of HA was further observed by the application of polarization at potentials having current densities typical of injured tissues suggesting that polarization produces an effect on the surface of the metallic material that leads to the production of wear particles that seem to be macrophage-biocompatible and less cytotoxic. The results showed the convenience of considering the influence of the electric interactions in the chemical composition of debris detached from metallic surfaces under wear corrosion to get a better understanding of the biological effects caused by the wear products. View Full-Text
Keywords: polarization; CoCr alloy; wear particles; hyaluronic acid; macrophages biocompatibility polarization; CoCr alloy; wear particles; hyaluronic acid; macrophages biocompatibility
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Perez-Maceda, B.T.; López-Fernández, M.E.; Díaz, I.; Kavanaugh, A.; Billi, F.; Escudero, M.L.; García-Alonso, M.C.; Lozano, R.M. Macrophage Biocompatibility of CoCr Wear Particles Produced under Polarization in Hyaluronic Acid Aqueous Solution. Materials 2018, 11, 756.

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