Modification of Physico-Chemical Properties of Acryl-Coated Polypropylene Foils for Food Packaging by Reactive Particles from Oxygen Plasma
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Plasma Afterglow Treatment
2.3. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Characterization
2.4. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Measurements
2.5. Contact Angle Measurements
3. Results and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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|Plasma Treatment||Discharge Parameters||Wettability||Surface Analysis||Reference|
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||WCA 1 was decreasing with increasing power and treatment time. From 74.5° it decreased to approx. 44° at the highest power of 29.6 W and at the longest treatment time 300 s. |
SFE 2 increased from 56.5 to max. 94.1 mJ/m2.
|AFM 3: surface roughness RMS 4 increased from 1.5 to 7.3 nm. |
XRD 5: higher degree of crystallinity observed after oxygen plasma treatment.
Mechanical properties: tensile strength decreased after plasma treatment.
Barrier properties: water vapor transmission was increasing with increasing power and time.
|Low-pressure oxygen and argon plasma||Increase of the surface energy of oxygen plasma-treated sample was higher than for the one treated in Ar. |
SFE was 70 and over 50 mJ/m2 for O2 and Ar plasma, respectively.
|ATR-FTIR 6: carbonyl groups observed as well as C=C which could be a sign of crosslinking. |
AFM: O2 plasma caused higher roughness than Ar.
Adhesion: High improvement of surface adhesion strength, especially for O2 plasma.
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||WCA decreased from 110° to 40°.||AFM: surface roughness first decreased with treatment time. At longer treatment times, a significant increase is observed. |
FTIR: C=O and –OH peaks observed for plasma-treated samples.
|Low-pressure air plasma||WCA decreased from 94.9° to 60°. Saturation reached after 10 s.||XPS 7: Oxygen concentration increased from 4.3 to 13.7 at %. Nitrogen (0.8 at. %) was also found, the rest being carbon. |
8.2% C–O, 2.7% C=O and O–C=O and 86.4% C–C, C–H groups observed on plasma treated sample.
ATR-FTIR: peaks attributed to OH and C=O in ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids.
|Atmospheric pressure air plasma||WCA decreased from 104° to 64° even at 1.2 kJ/m2. |
SFE increased from 33.7 to almost 50 mN/m.
|XPS: O/C ratio increased over 0.16. Nitrogen (2 at %) was also found. After one month, O/C decreased to 0.12. Groups like C–O (22.5%), C=O or O–C–O (8.4%) and O=C–O (5.3%) were found. Maximum concentration was obtained at the lowest treatment speed. |
AFM: Ra 8 increased from 5.8 to 12.9 nm. Bumps were observed on the surface. The height and width were increasing with treatment power and reached 60 and 500 nm, respectively.
|Low-pressure oxygen and argon plasma||WCA was decreasing with increasing power and treatment time. The lowest WCA was 34.4° for O2 and 38.2° for Ar plasma (initially 98.3°). |
SFE increased to ~45 mN/m.
|SEM 9 and AFM: topology and roughness changed significantly, especially for Ar plasma (nodules observed on the surface). RMS roughness increased from 3.6 to 6.9 and 6.1 nm for O2 and Ar plasma, respectively. |
ATR-FTIR: C=O stretching bond and C=C vibration observed. Some peaks attributed also to carboxylic/ester, aldehydes and ketone groups.
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||WCA decreased from 121.5° to 84° on PP nonwoven mats. Ageing for 90 days did not have significant effect on WCA. |
SFE increased from 13.7 to 29.2 mN/m.
|SEM: etching of PP fibers observed. |
XRD: no significant effect on the crystallinity of the treated fibers.
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||The lowest WCA—bellow 10° was observed at 150 W, 3.33 Pa and 60 s. |
After 30 days of ageing WCA increased to ~50°.
|Ageing and crystallinity: Two polymers with different initial crystallinity were used. More crystalline PP was ageing slower—WCA after 30 days was for ~5° lower than for less crystalline one. |
Degree of crosslinking was increased after the treatment for both polymers.
XPS: ~25 at % of oxygen was found on less-crystalline polymer. O concentration on more crystalline polymer was few at % lower. However, after ageing the O concentration changed in favor of more crystalline one.
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||WCA decreased from 98° to 24°. At long treatment times, it increased to 53°.||AFM: roughness RMS increased from ~ 12 nm to ~44 nm. |
ATR-FTIR: OH, C=O and
CO–C=O peaks observed for plasma treated samples.
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||WCA decreased from 83° to 60°. |
SFE increased from 25.7 to 43 mJ/m2.
|ATR-FTIR: OH, C=O groups in ester, ketone and carboxyl groups, C=O groups in unsaturated ketones and aldehydes.|||
|Low-pressure oxygen plasma||WCA was decreasing with the increasing power and treatment time. Minimal achievable |
WCA was 55.6° (initially 103°). Ageing in water was faster than in air. After 90 days, the WCA was 81.7° (in water) and 71.2° (in air).
|AFM: Roughness RMS increased after treatment from 2.1 nm to ~10 nm (in air) and ~5 nm (in water). Lower roughness of samples stored in water was explained by removing of water-soluble short-chain species.|||
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Vukušić, T.; Vesel, A.; Holc, M.; Ščetar, M.; Jambrak, A.R.; Mozetič, M. Modification of Physico-Chemical Properties of Acryl-Coated Polypropylene Foils for Food Packaging by Reactive Particles from Oxygen Plasma. Materials 2018, 11, 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030372
Vukušić T, Vesel A, Holc M, Ščetar M, Jambrak AR, Mozetič M. Modification of Physico-Chemical Properties of Acryl-Coated Polypropylene Foils for Food Packaging by Reactive Particles from Oxygen Plasma. Materials. 2018; 11(3):372. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030372Chicago/Turabian Style
Vukušić, Tomislava, Alenka Vesel, Matej Holc, Mario Ščetar, Anet Režek Jambrak, and Miran Mozetič. 2018. "Modification of Physico-Chemical Properties of Acryl-Coated Polypropylene Foils for Food Packaging by Reactive Particles from Oxygen Plasma" Materials 11, no. 3: 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030372