Next Article in Journal
Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion
Next Article in Special Issue
Hydrothermal Conversion of Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Red Liquor into Hydrochar
Previous Article in Journal
LED (Light-Emitting Diode) Road Lighting in Practice: An Evaluation of Compliance with Regulations and Improvements for Further Energy Savings
Previous Article in Special Issue
Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2016, 9(5), 361;

Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass

Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH (DBFZ)/German Biomass Research Center, Leipzig 04347, Germany
florafuel AG, München 81829, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Animesh Dutta
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Waste/Resources to Energy and Value added Product)
PDF [2436 KB, uploaded 16 May 2016]


The high contents of disadvantageous elements contained in non-woody biomass are known to cause problems during small and large scale combustion, typically resulting in a higher risk of slagging, corrosion, and increased emissions. Mechanically leaching the respective elements from the biomass through a sequence of process steps has proven to be a promising solution.The florafuel process used here is comprised of size reduction followed by washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering of the biomass. Densification of the upgraded biomass into standardized pellets (Ø 6mm) enables an application in existing small-scale boilers. The presented combustion trials investigated the performance of pellets made from leached grass, foliage and a mixture of both in two small-scale boilers (<100 kWth) with slightly different technology (moving grate versus water-cooled burner tube) during a 4-h measurement period. Emissions were in accordance with German emissions standards except for NOx (threshold is 0.50 g/m3) in the case of pure grass pellets (0.51 g/m3) and particulate matter (PM) in all but one case (foliage, 13–16 mg/m3). An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) unit installed with one of the boilers successfully reduced PM emission of both the grass and mixture fuel below the threshold of 20 mg/m3 (all emission values refer to 13 vol.% O2, at standard temperature and pressure (STP)). Bottom ash composition and grate temperature profiles were analyzed and discussed for one of the boilers. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid biofuel; residue biomass; combustion; mechanical leaching; emission reduction solid biofuel; residue biomass; combustion; mechanical leaching; emission reduction

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khalsa, J.H.A.; Döhling, F.; Berger, F. Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass. Energies 2016, 9, 361.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top