Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes †
1.1. A Temporally- and Spatially-Varying Energy Resource
1.2. Role of Turbine Selection in Wind Farm Design
- The installed capacity of the wind farm,
- The land configuration and the placement of turbines in the wind farm (i.e., macro- and micro-siting), and
- The types of wind turbines to be installed.
- Actual energy production capacity of a turbine (when operating as a group) based on the local wind resource, and
- Leveled cost of the wind farm attributable to the turbines.
1.3. Geographical Variation of Wind Patterns
1.4. Exploring “Turbine-Wind Regime” Compatibilities
- Step 1 The geographical variation/distribution of wind regimes (in terms of AWS) in the target market is characterized; the U.S. onshore market is used as the case study.
- Step 2 The types of commercial turbines that provide the minimum COE values are determined for different wind regimes, where the minimum COE value is given by optimized arrangement of a group of such turbines.
- Step 3 The likely demand/market-suitability of the currently available (commercial) turbine feature combinations (namely, rated power, rotor diameter and hub height) is determined for the entire target market, based on the expected installation rate, geographical distribution of wind regimes (Step 1) and estimated economic potential of the best-suited turbines for different wind regimes (Step 2).
- Step 4 The tradeoffs between the cost and capacity factor offered by the best performing turbines (for different wind regimes) are also determined to explore how these tradeoffs are related to the turbine-feature combinations.
2. Determining Optimal Wind Turbines (under Group Operation) for Different Wind Regimes
2.1. Characterizing Wind Regimes
2.1.1. Extracting Wind Map Information
2.1.2. Distribution of Wind Regimes in the Target Market
2.2. Approach to Determine Optimal Turbine Choices
2.3. Turbine Characterization Model
2.4. Wind Turbine Cost Model
2.5. Optimization of Farm Layout and Turbine Type Selection
3. Pool of Optimal Turbine Choices for Differing Wind Regimes
4. Market Suitability of Turbines
4.1. Development of a Market Suitability Metric for Wind Turbines
- How often different feature combinations were selected during the wind farm optimizations, across the different wind regimes (from Section 3);
- What level of performance (in terms of COE) was offered by the best performing turbines (from each rated-power class); and
- The probability of occurrence of each of the n sample average wind speeds (for which wind farm optimization was performed) over the U.S. onshore market; determined in Section 2.1.
4.2. Suitability of Wind Turbine Features for the U.S. Onshore Market
5. Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Current Commercial Turbines
5.1. Turbine Best Tradeoffs for Different Wind Classes
- , or
5.2. Comparing the Features of the Best Tradeoff Turbines to those of all Turbines Considered
Conflicts of Interest
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|Nameplate capacity||25.0 MW|
|Radius of the circular farm||964.0 m|
|Average terrain roughness||0.1 m (grassland)|
|Density of air||1.2 kg/m|
|Rated-Power Class (MW)||Number of Available Choices||Number Installed in the Farm|
|Rated-Power Class (MW)||R value||RMS Error|
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Chowdhury, S.; Mehmani, A.; Zhang, J.; Messac, A. Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes. Energies 2016, 9, 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050352
Chowdhury S, Mehmani A, Zhang J, Messac A. Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes. Energies. 2016; 9(5):352. https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050352Chicago/Turabian Style
Chowdhury, Souma, Ali Mehmani, Jie Zhang, and Achille Messac. 2016. "Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes" Energies 9, no. 5: 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050352