**Figure 1.**
Extents of domains and wave buoy locations for (**a**) coarse Ireland (CI) and (**b**) Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) wave models. WH: West Hebrides; BS: Black Stone; and GBTS: Galway Bay test site.

**Figure 1.**
Extents of domains and wave buoy locations for (**a**) coarse Ireland (CI) and (**b**) Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) wave models. WH: West Hebrides; BS: Black Stone; and GBTS: Galway Bay test site.

**Figure 2.**
Comparison of modelled and measured data at (**a1**–**a3**) M4 and (**b1**–**b3**) M6 for 2013. 1 = H_{s}, 2 = T_{z} and 3 = MWD. Note: measured MWD was not available for M6.

**Figure 2.**
Comparison of modelled and measured data at (**a1**–**a3**) M4 and (**b1**–**b3**) M6 for 2013. 1 = H_{s}, 2 = T_{z} and 3 = MWD. Note: measured MWD was not available for M6.

**Figure 3.**
Comparison of modelled and measured H_{s}, T_{z} and MWD at (**a1**–**a3**) BA and (**b1**–**b3**) BB for 2013.

**Figure 3.**
Comparison of modelled and measured H_{s}, T_{z} and MWD at (**a1**–**a3**) BA and (**b1**–**b3**) BB for 2013.

**Figure 4.**
Graphical representation of site characterisation approach using (

**a**) percentage of occurrences and (

**b**) normalised wave parameters with percentiles [

47].

**Figure 4.**
Graphical representation of site characterisation approach using (

**a**) percentage of occurrences and (

**b**) normalised wave parameters with percentiles [

47].

**Figure 5.**
12-year annual means of H_{s} (m) and MWD for (**a**) CI model and (**b**) AMETS model.

**Figure 5.**
12-year annual means of H_{s} (m) and MWD for (**a**) CI model and (**b**) AMETS model.

**Figure 6.**
12-year seasonal means of H_{s} (m) and MWD for (**a1**–**a4**) CI model and (**b1**–**b4**) AMETS model.

**Figure 6.**
12-year seasonal means of H_{s} (m) and MWD for (**a1**–**a4**) CI model and (**b1**–**b4**) AMETS model.

**Figure 7.**
Summary statistics from annual and seasonal analyses of H_{s} (m) for mean and maximum (Max) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 7.**
Summary statistics from annual and seasonal analyses of H_{s} (m) for mean and maximum (Max) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 8.**
Annual and seasonal operational (Op) and extreme (Ext) H_{s} thresholds (m) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 8.**
Annual and seasonal operational (Op) and extreme (Ext) H_{s} thresholds (m) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 9.**
12-year wave roses between H_{s} and MWD at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 9.**
12-year wave roses between H_{s} and MWD at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 10.**
12-year seasonal wave roses between H_{s} and MWD at (**a1**–**a4**) BA and (**b1**–**b4**) BB.

**Figure 10.**
12-year seasonal wave roses between H_{s} and MWD at (**a1**–**a4**) BA and (**b1**–**b4**) BB.

**Figure 11.**
12-year annual means of T_{E} (s) and MWD for (**a**) CI model and (**b**) AMETS model.

**Figure 11.**
12-year annual means of T_{E} (s) and MWD for (**a**) CI model and (**b**) AMETS model.

**Figure 12.**
12-year seasonal mean of T_{E} (s) and MWD for (**a1**–**a4**) CI model and (**b1**–**b4**) AMETS model.

**Figure 12.**
12-year seasonal mean of T_{E} (s) and MWD for (**a1**–**a4**) CI model and (**b1**–**b4**) AMETS model.

**Figure 13.**
Summary statistics from annual and seasonal analyses of T_{E} (s) for mean and maximum (Max) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 13.**
Summary statistics from annual and seasonal analyses of T_{E} (s) for mean and maximum (Max) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 14.**
Annual and seasonal operational (Op) and extreme (Ext) T_{E} thresholds (s) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 14.**
Annual and seasonal operational (Op) and extreme (Ext) T_{E} thresholds (s) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 15.**
12-year wave roses between T_{E} and MWD at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 15.**
12-year wave roses between T_{E} and MWD at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 16.**
12-year seasonal wave roses between T_{E} and MWD at (**a1**–**a4**) BA and (**b1**–**b4**) BB.

**Figure 16.**
12-year seasonal wave roses between T_{E} and MWD at (**a1**–**a4**) BA and (**b1**–**b4**) BB.

**Figure 17.**
12-year annual means of P (kW/m) for (**a**) CI model and (**b**) AMETS model.

**Figure 17.**
12-year annual means of P (kW/m) for (**a**) CI model and (**b**) AMETS model.

**Figure 18.**
12-year seasonal means of P (kW/m) for (**a1**–**a4**) CI model and (**b1**–**b4**) AMETS model.

**Figure 18.**
12-year seasonal means of P (kW/m) for (**a1**–**a4**) CI model and (**b1**–**b4**) AMETS model.

**Figure 19.**
Summary statistics from annual and seasonal analyses of P (kW/m) for mean and maximum (Max) at (**a1**,**a2**) BA and (**b1**,**b2**) BB.

**Figure 19.**
Summary statistics from annual and seasonal analyses of P (kW/m) for mean and maximum (Max) at (**a1**,**a2**) BA and (**b1**,**b2**) BB.

**Figure 20.**
Annual and seasonal operational (Op) and extreme (Ext) P thresholds (kW/m) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 20.**
Annual and seasonal operational (Op) and extreme (Ext) P thresholds (kW/m) at (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB.

**Figure 21.**
Bi-variate scatter plot for (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB for 2004–2015 showing percentage occurrences of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 21.**
Bi-variate scatter plot for (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB for 2004–2015 showing percentage occurrences of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 22.**
Bi-variate scatter plot for BA for (**a**) winter; (**b**) spring; (**c**) summer; and (**d**) autumn showing percentage of occurrences of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 22.**
Bi-variate scatter plot for BA for (**a**) winter; (**b**) spring; (**c**) summer; and (**d**) autumn showing percentage of occurrences of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 23.**
Bi-variate scatter plot for BB for (**a**) winter (**b**) spring (**c**) summer and (**d**) autumn showing percentage of occurrences of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 23.**
Bi-variate scatter plot for BB for (**a**) winter (**b**) spring (**c**) summer and (**d**) autumn showing percentage of occurrences of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 24.**
(**a**) Seasonal mean powers at BA and BB and (**b**) inter-annual comparison of seasonal mean P at BA.

**Figure 24.**
(**a**) Seasonal mean powers at BA and BB and (**b**) inter-annual comparison of seasonal mean P at BA.

**Figure 25.**
(**a**) Annual mean P at BA and BB and (**b**) regression analysis of winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index against winter mean wave power at BA.

**Figure 25.**
(**a**) Annual mean P at BA and BB and (**b**) regression analysis of winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index against winter mean wave power at BA.

**Figure 26.**
12-year seasonal variability index (SV) values for (**a**) CI and (**b**) AMETS model domains.

**Figure 26.**
12-year seasonal variability index (SV) values for (**a**) CI and (**b**) AMETS model domains.

**Figure 27.**
12-year monthly variability index (MV) values for (**a**) CI and (**b**) AMETS model domains.

**Figure 27.**
12-year monthly variability index (MV) values for (**a**) CI and (**b**) AMETS model domains.

**Figure 28.**
Bi-variate scatter plots for (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB for 2004–2015 showing numbers of occurrence (in hours) and contribution to total energy of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Figure 28.**
Bi-variate scatter plots for (**a**) BA and (**b**) BB for 2004–2015 showing numbers of occurrence (in hours) and contribution to total energy of H_{s} and T_{E}, with wave power isolines included.

**Table 1.**
Summary of available measured wave data. BA: Berth A; BB: Berth B; WH: West-hebrides; and BS: Blackstones.

**Table 1.**
Summary of available measured wave data. BA: Berth A; BB: Berth B; WH: West-hebrides; and BS: Blackstones.
Station | Locations | Depth (m) | Availability | Measured Data Resolution | Modelled Data Resolution |
---|

BA | 10.3 W, 54.28 N | 100 | January 2012 to date | 30 min | 30 min |

BB | 10.15 W, 54.23 N | 50 | January 2010 to date | 30 min | 30 min |

M3 | 10.55 W, 51.22 N | 155 | January 2007 to date | 1 h | 1 h |

M4 | 9.99 W, 54.99 N | 80 | January 2008 to date | 1 h | 1 h |

M6 | 15.88 W, 53.07 N | 3280 | January 2007 to date | 1 h | 1 h |

WH | 7.91 W, 57.29 N | 83 | January 2009 to date | 1 h | 1 h |

BS | 7.06 W, 56.06 N | 93 | January 2009 to date | 1 h | 1 h |

**Table 2.**
Summary of coarse Ireland (CI) model validation values and measured mean values for 2008–2013. NA indicates non-available data. MWD: mean wave direction.

**Table 2.**
Summary of coarse Ireland (CI) model validation values and measured mean values for 2008–2013. NA indicates non-available data. MWD: mean wave direction.
Station | Waves | Mean | R^{2} | RMSE | Bias | SI |
---|

BA | H_{s} (m) | 3.01 m | 0.95 | 0.55 m | −0.02 m | 0.18 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.82 s | 0.84 | 1.22 s | 0.23 s | 0.18 |

MWD (°) | 285° | 0.61 | 28° | −12° | 0.10 |

BB | H_{s} (m) | 2.80 m | 0.92 | 0.69 m | −0.40 m | 0.24 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.98 s | 0.77 | 1.74 s | 0.23 s | 0.25 |

MWD (°) | 292° | 0.57 | 25° | −4° | 0.09 |

M3 | H_{s} (m) | 2.99 m | 0.95 | 0.51 m | 0.11 m | 0.17 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.91 s | 0.85 | 1.16 s | 0.37 s | 0.17 |

MWD (°) | 266° | 0.79 | 27° | 6° | 0.10 |

M4 | H_{s} (m) | 3.09m | 0.92 | 0.65 m | 0.07 m | 0.21 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.97s | 0.84 | 1.16 s | 0.27 s | 0.17 |

MWD (°) | 260° | 0.61 | 60° | 2° | 0.20 |

M6 | H_{s} (m) | 3.09 m | 0.92 | 0.67 m | 0.33 m | 0.22 |

T_{z} (s) | 7.26 s | 0.84 | 1.06 s | 0.39 s | 0.15 |

MWD (°) | NA | NA | NA° | NA | NA |

WH | H_{s} (m) | 2.84 m | 0.90 | 0.85 m | 0.01 m | 0.30 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.64 s | 0.80 | 1.47 s | 0.13 s | 0.22 |

MWD (°) | 265° | 0.40 | 82° | −15° | 0.30 |

BS | H_{s} (m) | 2.49 m | 0.93 | 0.60 m | 0.31 m | 0.24 |

T_{z} (s) | 1.54 s | 0.86 | 1.42 s | 0.51 s | 0.23 |

MWD (°) | 268° | 0.62 | 54° | −4° | 0.20 |

**Table 3.**
Summary of AMETS model validation values and measured mean values at BA (2012–2013) and BB (2010–2013). NA indicates non-available data.

**Table 3.**
Summary of AMETS model validation values and measured mean values at BA (2012–2013) and BB (2010–2013). NA indicates non-available data.
Station | Waves | Mean | R^{2} | RMSE | Bias | SI |
---|

BA | H_{s} (m) | 3.01 m | 0.95 | 0.58 m | 0.10 m | 0.19 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.82 s | 0.87 | 1.21 s | 0.19 s | 0.18 |

MWD (°) | 285° | 0.66 | 27° | −8° | 0.09 |

BB | H_{s} (m) | 2.80 m | 0.95 | 0.52 m | 0.17 m | 0.22 |

T_{z} (s) | 6.98 s | 0.80 | 1.40 s | 0.01 s | 0.20 |

MWD (°) | 292° | 0.64 | 26° | −9° | 0.09 |

[44] at BB | H_{s} (m) | 2.08 m | 0.89 | 0.48 m | 0.17 m | 0.23 |

T_{z} (s) | 8.47 s | 0.77 | 1.42 s | 1.12 s | 0.17 |

MWD (°) | NA | NA | NA° | NA | NA |

[12] at BB | H_{s} (m) | NA | 0.84 | 0.73 m | −0.11 m | 0.31 |

T_{z} (s) | NA | 0.52 | 1.82 s | −1.15 s | 0.21 |

MWD (°) | NA | NA | NA° | NA | NA |

[40] at BB | H_{s} (m) | 2.87 m | 0.95 | 0.41 m | 0.19 m | 0.14 |

T_{z} (s) | 7.06 s | 0.89 | 0.86 s | 0.65 s | 0.12 |

MWD (°) | NA | NA | NA° | NA | NA |

**Table 4.**
Summary of deep water waves condition at BA and BB.

**Table 4.**
Summary of deep water waves condition at BA and BB.
Period/Location | Depth, d (m) | Mean Wavelength, λ (m) | d/λ > 1/2 |
---|

12-year BA | 100 | 89.0 | 1.1 |

12-year BB | 50 | 81.7 | 0.6 |

12-year Winter BB | 50 | 106.3 | 0.5 |

12-year Spring BB | 50 | 79.8 | 0.6 |

12-year Summer BB | 50 | 57.4 | 0.9 |

12-year Autumn BB | 50 | 83.7 | 0.6 |