- freely available
Energies 2015, 8(7), 6945-6961; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8076945
2. Literature Review
3. Electric Load
- the day-to-day variability is taken as 5% in this study.
- the time-step-to-time-step variability is taken as 5% in this study.
4. The Resources of Solar Radiation, Wind Speed and Temperature
5. Hybrid System Modeling
6. Results and Discussion
- PV panels (1600 kW), Figure 6 shows the yearly power output of the PV system of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study. The mean power output of the PV is 383.8 kW of the total rated capacity 1600 kW (capacity factor is 23.988%); the time of operation of the PV during the year is 4385 h. The levelized COE using the PV power is $0.0595/kWh.
- Wind turbines (1000 kW), Figure 7a,b show the yearly wind power output and Weibull probability distribution function of the wind speed histogram of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study. The mean power output of the wind turbine is 273.17 kW of the total rated capacity 1000 kW (capacity factor is 27.317%); the time of operation of the wind turbine during the year is 7426 h. The levelized COE using the wind turbine power is $0.0752/kWh.Figure 6. The yearly PV power output of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study.Figure 7. (a) The yearly wind turbine power output of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study; (b) Weibull probability distribution function of wind speed histogram.
- Diesel generator (200 kW), Figure 8 shows the yearly diesel generator power output of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study. The maximum power output of the diesel generator is 200 kW, the minimum power output is 50 kW and the mean power output is 146.24 kW. The time of operation of the diesel generator is 225 h in five starts during the year as shown in Figure 8. Additionally, the total consumed amount of fuel is 11,570 L/year and the marginal generation cost of the diesel generator is $0.06/kWh.Figure 8. The yearly diesel generator power output of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study.
- Power converters (1000 kW), Figure 9a,b show the yearly rectifier and inverter power input and power output of the HRES for the proposed tourist village in the study. It should be noted that the converter has two functions; first rectifier to convert AC power to DC power (batteries charger), second inverter to convert DC power to AC power (energy flow from the PV or the batteries to the AC load). The energy output from the rectifier is 229,757 kWh/year while the energy input to the rectifier is 270,303 kWh/year with losses of 40,546 kWh/year. The time of operation of the power converter as a rectifier during the year is 1433 h. The energy output from the inverter is 2,045,117 kWh/year while the energy input to the inverter is 2,272,351 kWh/year with losses of 227,234 kWh/year. The time of operation of the power converter as an inverter during the year is 6295 h.Figure 9. (a) The yearly rectifier power input and power output; (b) the yearly inverter power input and power output.
- Batteries (2000 batteries, with the capacity of 589 Ah each), Figure 10a,b show the yearly battery charging and discharging power and maximum power. Figure 10c shows the yearly batteries input power and batteries state of charge. The batteries state of charge is around 100% most of the year. The energy output from the batteries is 1,346,038 kWh/year while the energy input to the batteries is 1,569,687 kWh/year with losses of 214,431 kWh/year and storage depletion of 9218 kWh/year. Additionally, the expected lifetime of the batteries is 17.26 years.
- the total annual capacity shortage (kWh/year).
- the total annual electric demand ( primary plus deferrable) (kWh/year).
- the total annual unmet electric load (kWh/year).
- Alexandria is the optimum Egyptian tourist city to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village in comparison with the other four tourist cities (Luxor, Giza, Qena and Aswan).
- The hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum HRES for the proposed tourist village in Alexandria according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE) and net present cost (NPC)) and the amount of GHG emitted.
- The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels, 1000 kW of wind turbines, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator and 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each.
- The cost of PV system, wind turbines, diesel generator, batteries and power converters during the 25 years the project’s lifetime, using 8% annual interest rate are $5,000,000, $4,500,000, $202,851, $4,405,509 and $1,275,000 respectively.
- The levelized COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh, which is the least expensive COE in comparison with other systems configurations additionally, the total NPC of this system is $15,383,360.
- The maximum renewable energy fraction of the optimum system is 99.1%, In other words, we have achieved a zero sustainable energy tourist village.
- The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparing with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system.
- The electricity produced from the diesel generator is only 0.57% (32,903 kWh/year). Additionally, the excess electricity produced by the optimum HRES can be used by any dump load in the form of a heating or cooling load, which would increase the efficiency of the optimum HRES and decrease the levelized COE less than $0.17/kWh.
- The achieved percentage of the capacity shortage of the optimum HRES is only 0%, which means this system is a reliable system.
- The achieved percentage of the unmet load of the optimal HRES is only 0%. Additionally, the same study can be applied on any other application in any other site in the world by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases emissions, which could provide more benefits by reducing CO2 emissions and providing a reliable supply of electricity in all load conditions.
Conflicts of Interest
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