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Recent Advances in the Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Solid State Hydrogen Store

WestCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Joseph Black Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2015, 8(1), 430-453;
Received: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 13 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrides: Fundamentals and Applications)


The development of new practical hydrogen storage materials with high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen densities is necessary to implement fuel cell technology for both mobile and stationary applications. NaBH4, owing to its low cost and high hydrogen density (10.6 wt%), has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. However, its practical use is hampered by its high thermodynamic stability and slow hydrogen exchange kinetics. Recent developments have been made in promoting H2 release and tuning the thermodynamics of the thermal decomposition of solid NaBH4. These conceptual advances offer a positive outlook for using NaBH4-based materials as viable hydrogen storage carriers for mobile applications. This review summarizes contemporary progress in this field with a focus on the fundamental dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation pathways and properties and on material design strategies towards improved kinetics and thermodynamics such as catalytic doping, nano-engineering, additive destabilization and chemical modification.

1. Introduction

With concerning current trends in environmental pollution and depletion of fossil energy resources, there is an imperative to seek renewable and clean energy sources that can support the continued sustainable development of human society. Hydrogen is regarded as one of the best alternative sustainable energy carriers because of its abundance, high energy density and lack of adverse environmental impact (for example, when oxidized as water). However, an important challenge for the use of hydrogen for mobile (e.g., automotive) and small scale energy generation is how to achieve safe, cheap, high density storage [1]. Essentially, hydrogen can be stored either in a physical form (as a gas or liquid) or in a chemical form (e.g., within metal hydrides or so-called chemical hydrides). Compressed gas and liquid hydrogen storage technologies represent the current state-of-the art, but more compact (gravimetrically and/or volumetrically efficient) means of storing hydrogen are needed for mobile applications on a practical level. In principle, solid state hydrogen storage in metal hydrides is considered a more effective and safer way to handle hydrogen than its storage as either a compressed gas or cryogenic liquid. The hydrides offer volumetric hydrogen densities substantially greater than that of compressed gas and comparable to or exceeding that of liquid hydrogen but without the requirement of very high pressure containment vessels or cryogenic tanks [2,3,4]. An ideal on-board hydrogen storage material will have a low molar weight, be inexpensive, have rapid kinetics for absorbing and desorbing H2 in the 25–120 °C temperature range, and store large quantities of hydrogen reversibly [5]. Recently, light metal borohydrides such as NaBH4 [6,7,8], LiBH4 [9,10,11,12], Mg(BH4)2 [13,14,15], and Ca(BH4)2 [16,17,18] have attracted much attention as potential hydrogen storage media primarily due to their high gravimetric capacities. The physical and chemical properties of these borohydrides are shown in Table 1 [19,20]. Perhaps compared to the borohydrides of lithium, magnesium and calcium there has been little focus on NaBH4 for hydrogen storage in the solid state due to its relatively much higher decomposition temperature. Given that the decomposition temperature of NaBH4 at 1 bar of H2 is in excess of 500 °C, the required operating temperature for a store would considerably exceed that required for practical application in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles [7]. This fact alone explains why most previous research has been conducted on the hydrolysis of NaBH4 for hydrogen generation rather than its thermolysis as part of a solid state storage system [21]. However, the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of real hydrolysis-based storage systems will invariably be lower than the theoretical 10.6 wt% figure due to the excess water required to dissolve the NaBH4 and its by-product, NaBO2, as well as the added mass of the reaction and storage vessels. Hence, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) issued a “No-Go” recommendation for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 in 2007, and since then the approach has no longer been seriously considered for automotive applications [22].
Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of borohydrides.
Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of borohydrides.
BorohydrideCost a/(USD/g)Hydrogen density/wt%Td b/°CReactionReferences
NaBH46.4710.6505NaBH4 → Na + B + 2H2[6,7,8]
LiBH415.6518.5380LiBH4 → Li + B + 2H2[9,10,11,12]
Mg(BH4)2116.514.9320Mg(BH4)2 → MgB2 + 4H2[13,14,15]
Ca(BH4)214211.6367Ca(BH4)2 → 2/3CaH2 + 1/3CaB6 + 10/3H2[16,17,18]
a Prices from Sigma-Aldrich [23] for hydrogen storage grade materials; and b dehydrogenation temperature.
However, use of solid NaBH4 for hydrogen storage has many advantages. Compared to other borohydrides, NaBH4 is cheaper and relatively stable in air [24]. For NaBH4 to be suitable for practical applications, the desorption temperature must be reduced and appreciable cyclability must be demonstrated. Over the last several years some novel strategies such as catalysis, nano-engineering, additive destabilization and chemical modification have been employed to address the thermodynamic and kinetic limitations of the thermal decomposition of NaBH4. While NaBH4 is not yet the solution to the problem of facile storage of hydrogen in the solid state, the progress of the various methodologies in improving both performance and understanding of this performance has been highly encouraging and hence we focus on these advances in this review. The primary purpose of this paper is to consider progress largely from 2009 onwards, comparing what is known regarding the decomposition behavior and mechanism of pristine NaBH4 with materials modified using the approaches listed above and the prospects of such systems for practical exploitation.

2. Thermal Decomposition

NaBH4 adopts a NaCl-type structure at ambient conditions in which four hydrogen atoms are covalently stabilized within the BH4 anion, which in turn is bonded essentially ionically to the counter-cation Na+ [24]. The complete hydrogen desorption reaction of NaBH4 can be expressed as follows:
NaBH4 → Na + B + 2H2  10.6 wt%
However, like many other borohydrides, the real decomposition process of NaBH4 is likely to be more complex and involve intermediate phases such as NaH, Na2B12H12, or even release impurity gases such as B2H6 [6]. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have provided insight into its decomposition behavior as well as identifying the extent of the challenges ahead in developing NaBH4 as a viable hydrogen carrier.
First principles calculations suggest a scenario where BH4 ions decompose at the surface of NaBH4 into H ions and BH3 molecules [25]. The H ions remain in the lattice, locally converting NaBH4 into NaH. The BH3 molecules originating from the decomposition can escape to the gas phase and form B2H6 (diborane) molecules, for instance. Alternatively, they may decompose immediately to form hydrogen and B. However, there is no direct evidence from mass spectrometry data of B2H6 release during the decomposition of NaBH4 [6]. Despite this lack of experimental evidence, it remains possible that NaBH4 decomposition may involve diborane emission, as is seen in the thermal decomposition of less stable borohydrides [20]. Due to the high temperature necessary for decomposition on the one hand and the low thermal stability of diborane on the other, most of the diborane decomposes into the elements. At the same time, some of the gaseous species may react with remaining NaBH4 to form Na2B12H12.
Martelli et al. [7] investigated the stability and hydrogen desorption of NaBH4 via dynamic pressure, composition, and temperature (PCT) measurements under constant hydrogen flows. It was found that only one plateau is visible in the isotherms, indicating that the decomposition occurs in one step (Figure 1). From the van’t Hoff equation, the enthalpy and entropy of reaction are −108 ± 3 kJ·mol−1of H2 and 133 ± 3 J·K−1·mol−1 of H2 respectively. This corresponds to a decomposition temperature, Td = 534 ± 10 °C at 1 bar of H2. The high stability of NaBH4 leads to a dehydrogenation temperature that is above the decomposition temperature of NaH [26].
Figure 1. Pressure, composition, and temperature (PCT) isotherms measured on NaBH4 at a constant hydrogen flow of 2, 1, and 0.5 cm3 (STP) min−1 [7]. Reprinted with permission from [7], copyright 2010 The American Chemical Society.
Figure 1. Pressure, composition, and temperature (PCT) isotherms measured on NaBH4 at a constant hydrogen flow of 2, 1, and 0.5 cm3 (STP) min−1 [7]. Reprinted with permission from [7], copyright 2010 The American Chemical Society.
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Therefore, NaH is thermodynamically unstable under the decomposition conditions of NaBH4 and will decompose into the corresponding elements without changing the observed equilibrium pressure. This rationalises the experimental analysis that Na is contained in the residue (as either Na or NaH). A second phase in the product was identified as either elemental boron or a boron-rich phase [7]. The Na:NaH ratio in the residue is determined by the reaction kinetics involved. The presence of traces of NaH in the product shows that NaBH4 decays at least partially via NaH, which confirms the theoretical prediction [25].
Recently, the boron-containing intermediate phase Na2B12H12 was found experimentally during the decomposition of NaBH4 (and its composites). For example, Mao et al. [27] confirmed the formation of Na2B12H12 by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the decomposition of TiF3-doped NaBH4 or CaH2-6NaBH4 and Ca(BH4)2-4NaBH4 composites. In contrast, Garroni et al. [28] detected amorphous Na2B12H12 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in partially dehydrogenated 2NaBH4-MgH2 and in the final products of the decomposition reaction. More recently, Ngene et al. [29] detected Na2B12H12 with 11B solid state NMR after the dehydrogenation of a nanoconfined NaBH4/porous carbon material. The formation mechanism of Na2B12H12 is not yet clear; the borohydride may originate from the reaction of boranes with unreacted NaBH4, which was proposed by the first principles calculations [25]. In fact, a similar decomposition route was proposed for LiBH4, where Friedrichs et al. [30] suggested that the formation of Li2B12H12 arises from the reaction of the borane evolving from LiBH4 with the remaining starting material. First principles calculations suggest that Na2B12H12 has significant ionic character and is relatively stable and if it was formed during the thermal decomposition of NaBH4, thermodynamically one would not expect its existence to be fleeting [31]. Moreover, because of its anticipated low reactivity with hydrogen, when formed it might be expected to represent a limiting step in the reverse reaction to the fully hydrogenated NaBH4. In this regard, further research is required to evaluate the effects of the formation of Na2B12H12 on both the NaBH4 dehydrogenation and its subsequent re-hydrogenation.

3. Strategies for Promoting H2 Release from Solid-State Thermolysis of NaBH4

From the point where NaBH4 hydrolysis was no longer considered for automotive applications by the US DOE, solid-state thermolysis has become the only realistic option for the practical use of the borohydride in hydrogen storage applications. Before this can happen, however, the kinetic and thermodynamic limitations associated with the (de)hydrogenation of NaBH4 must be removed. To this end, several strategies have recently been developed and proven effective in improving the thermally activated H2 release from NaBH4 and these are considered below.

3.1. Catalytic Doping

Catalysts play an important role in the hydrogen sorption processes in hydrides, since they improve the hydrogen uptake and release kinetics by reducing the activation barrier for diffusion and facilitating hydrogen dissociation. Therefore, it is of particular interest to use catalysts to promote hydrogen exchange reactions in NaBH4 under moderate temperature and pressure conditions.
Mao et al. [32] investigated the effects of Ti-based additives, including Ti, TiH2, and TiF3, on the dehydrogenation of NaBH4. It was revealed that all of the titanium-based additives were effective in improving the hydrogen desorption and absorption reactions of NaBH4 and among them TiF3 possessed the highest catalytic activity (Figure 2). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the dehydrogenation of TiF3-doped NaBH4 can be regarded as a two-step process: (i) the thermodynamically-favorable reaction between borohydride and fluoride at ca. 300 °C (3NaBH4 + TiF3 → 3NaF + TiB2 + B + 6H2); and (ii) the dehydrogenation of the remaining NaBH4, catalysed by the NaF and TiB2 formed in situ in step (i). The TiF3-doped sample demonstrates good reversibility with ca. 4 wt% hydrogen absorbed below 500 °C at 5.5 MPa.
Ni-containing additives including Ni (20 nm), Ni3B, NiCl2, NiF2, and Ni (65 wt%) supported on Si/Al2O3 reduce the dehydrogenation temperature of NaBH4 by at least 60 °C (e.g., 65 wt% Ni on Si/Al2O3) [33]. PXD analysis has indicated that Ni reacts with B evolved during the thermal decomposition of NaBH4 to form NixBy species including Ni3B, Ni2B, and Ni3B4. The thermodynamically favorable formation of these species is likely one reason why the dehydrogenation temperature is reduced. The reversibility is poor however and re-hydrogenation forms NaH with a maximum hydrogen uptake of ca. 2 wt% and no activity to hydrogenation from the additives evident. The authors also conducted a catalyst screening study of NaBH4 with a variety of metal nanoparticles, chlorides, borides, and mesoporous materials. The most effective catalysis was performed by Pd nanoparticles inducing a desorption temperature of 420 °C; a decrease of at least 85 °C compared to pristine NaBH4. By analogy to the nickel additives above, the reduction in dehydrogenation temperature is probably enabled by the formation of PdxBy intermediate phases. The reversibility of hydrogen uptake and release in the system incorporating Pd (PdxBy) has yet to be reported.
Figure 2. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) profiles of NaBH4 with and without different titanium catalysts. The heating rate was 5 °C·min1 [32]. Reprinted with permission from [32], copyright 2012 The American Chemical Society.
Figure 2. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) profiles of NaBH4 with and without different titanium catalysts. The heating rate was 5 °C·min1 [32]. Reprinted with permission from [32], copyright 2012 The American Chemical Society.
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3.2. Nano-Engineering

It is well-documented that the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles can be very different from those of the corresponding bulk materials [34]. Reducing the particle size of the metal hydride to the nanometer range can result in enhanced kinetics and in some cases, modified thermodynamics.
Metal hydride nanoparticles or nanocomposites are usually prepared by high-energy ball milling. However, the lower range of particle sizes obtained from milling is typically limited to hundreds of nanometers and the particle size distribution is usually non-uniform. For NaBH4, Varin and Chiu [35] studied the variation of the cubic lattice parameter and crystallite (grain) size with milling times of up to 200 h. It was found that the lattice parameter of the compound varies only modestly during prolonged milling (maximum ~0.15% after 50 h) and the average crystallite (grain) size remains of the order of a few tens of nanometers. Therefore, it seems that ball milling even under these relatively extreme conditions is rather limited in its ability to nanostructure NaBH4.
One sophisticated approach towards achieving genuinely nanoscale dimensions in the borohydride is to infiltrate the material into a mesoporous host matrix. Such approaches could improve the hydrogen uptake kinetics (and in some cases the thermodynamics) of hydrides significantly. Ampoumogli et al. [36] recently synthesized nanocomposites of NaBH4/CMK-3 (an ordered mesoporous carbon) via the impregnation of the porous carbon with NaBH4 dissolved in liquid ammonia and showed that the nanocomposite releases hydrogen at lower temperatures than bulk NaBH4. Mass spectra however, showed that the released gases contained ammonia, which could either originate from solvent that is incorporated into the pores of the carbon or form a sodium borohydride ammine complex formed during the impregnation process. In contrast, by nano-confining NaBH4 in a highly-ordered Si-based mesoporous scaffold (SBA-15) and its carbon (CMK-3) replica, respectively, through ammonia-free wet chemical impregnation, it was possible to avoid the formation of unwanted by-products [37]. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) highlighted a notable reduction in dehydrogenation temperature compared to bulk NaBH4, but the details of the desorption pathway, associated structural evolution and reversibility in this system are not yet clear and require further study. Recently, Ngene et al. [29] synthesized NaBH4/C nanocomposites in which the pores of the matrix were of 2–3 nm in diameter. The materials were prepared using pore volume impregnation either with an aqueous NaBH4 solution (denoted SI) or via melt infiltration (MI). It was found that each method results in a lower dehydrogenation temperature compared to pristine NaBH4 [29]. The onset of hydrogen release can be reduced from 470 °C for the bulk borohydride to less than 250 °C for the nanocomposites (Figure 3). In these cases the dehydrogenated nanocomposites could be partially re-hydrogenated with the absorption of about 43% of the initial hydrogen capacity under 60 bar H2 at 325 °C. The loss of capacity in this system was directly connected to partial loss of Na during dehydrogenation and this loss could be ameliorated (to retention of 98% of initial capacity) by adding further Na to the nanocomposites.
Figure 3. TPD experiments (5 °C·min1 under Ar) showing hydrogen release from bulk NaBH4 (black); a physical mixture of 25 wt% NaBH4 and porous carbon (PM; red); solution impregnated 25 wt% NaBH4/C nanocomposites (SI; purple) and melt infiltration (MI; blue) 25 wt% NaBH4/C nanocomposites [29]. Reproduced from [29] with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Figure 3. TPD experiments (5 °C·min1 under Ar) showing hydrogen release from bulk NaBH4 (black); a physical mixture of 25 wt% NaBH4 and porous carbon (PM; red); solution impregnated 25 wt% NaBH4/C nanocomposites (SI; purple) and melt infiltration (MI; blue) 25 wt% NaBH4/C nanocomposites [29]. Reproduced from [29] with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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Nano-confinement in porous matrices has become a well-traveled bridge connecting bulk and nanoscale hydrogen storage materials. In addition to the unique structures and size-specific chemistry of nanomaterials, the methodology is also expected to introduce a large number of defects. Moreover, the interactions between the M–H bond and the internal surface of the nanopores may also contribute a catalytic effect to the desorption process. All these effects would promote dehydrogenation at lower temperatures. However, the weight penalty of the supporting substrates (hosts) will always reduce the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of the system.
In an alternative approach, Christian and Aguey-Zinsou [38,39] synthesized NaBH4 nanoparticles (<30 nm in diameter) by using an anti-solvent precipitation method. The procedure resulted in a decrease of the borohydride melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C; ca. 100 °C lower than the bulk material. Encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction with nickel chloride yielded core-shell nanostructures, NaBH4@Ni. This core-shell material begins to release hydrogen at 50 °C with significant desorption from 350 °C. Even more remarkably, the core-shell configuration engenders full reversibility to NaBH4 with hydrogen desorption/absorption occurring under 4 MPa at 350 °C (Figure 4). A consistent reversible hydrogen capacity of 5 wt% was achieved for NaBH4@Ni, in which 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in <60 min and full capacity could be achieved within 5 h. Although these conditions are still far from the ideal requirements for practical applications, this work suggests that the hydrogen storage performance of NaBH4 can be altered dramatically by the integration of nano-engineering and catalysis concepts.
Figure 4. Kinetics of hydrogen desorption at 0.01 MPa and absorption under 4 MPa hydrogen pressure at 350 °C for NaBH4@Ni [38]. Reprinted with permission from [38], copyright 2012 The American Chemical Society.
Figure 4. Kinetics of hydrogen desorption at 0.01 MPa and absorption under 4 MPa hydrogen pressure at 350 °C for NaBH4@Ni [38]. Reprinted with permission from [38], copyright 2012 The American Chemical Society.
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3.3. Destabilization Using Reactive Additives

Another possible way to lower the decomposition temperature of NaBH4 and further tune its thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics is by the use of certain select additives. As opposed to the use of catalysts, the additive employed in these cases not only promotes the kinetics, but also tunes the thermodynamics through changing the reaction pathway. For example, the dehydrogenation thermodynamics and kinetics of NaBH4 could be significantly improved by combining with fluorographite (FGi) according to the following reaction [40]:
xNaBH4 + 4CFxxNaBF4 + 4C + 2xH2 (x = 0.8–1)
The dehydrogenation onset temperature of ball-milled 55NaBH4-45FGi composites can be decreased to 125 °C and approximately 4.8 wt% hydrogen can be released at 130 °C over a period of several seconds. Such additives are usually mixed with the hydrides by high-energy milling. Several additives such as hydrides and fluorides, have been found to destabilize NaBH4 effectively and make the dehydrogenation or even hydrogenation possible at rather moderate pressures and temperatures.

3.3.1. Hydride Destabilization

An important potential advantage in using hydrides as a destabilizing additive over others, is that in addition to the tuning of the thermodynamics and kinetics of (de)hydrogenation, it is possible to maintain a high gravimetric capacity. For example, MgH2 has been used successfully to modify the (de)hydrogenation thermodynamics relative to NaBH4 by forming the compound MgB2 upon dehydrogenation [41,42]. The main dehydrogenation reaction can either proceed to formation of NaH or sodium depending on the conditions:
2NaBH4 + MgH2 → 2NaH + MgB2 + 4H2  7.8 wt%
2NaBH4 + MgH2 → 2Na + MgB2 + 5H2  9.8 wt%
This concept is called destabilization in a “reactive hydride composite (RHC)” in which two or more hydrides are combined in appropriate ratios to lower the dehydrogenation enthalpy of the system through forming a new hydrogen-free, thermodynamically stable compound as a by-product. Hence the desorption temperature is reduced and the reversibility of the system is improved [43].
By employing this strategy, the dehydrogenation of NaBH4 can be facilitated by combining the borohydride with other metal hydrides such as LiAlH4, Ca(BH4)2 and CaH2 so as to form LiAl, AlB2 and CaB6 respectively upon dehydrogenation [27,44]:
2NaBH4 + 2LiAlH4 → 2Na + AlB2 + LiAl + 8H2  10.6 wt%
4NaBH4 + Ca(BH4)2 → 4Na + CaB6 + 12H2  10.9 wt%
6NaBH4 + CaH2 → 6Na + CaB6 + 13H2  9.7 wt%
Similarly, addition of Mg2NiH4 to NaBH4 leads to formation of the stable ternary boride phase MgNi2.5B2 and lowers the enthalpy of hydrogen desorption for NaBH4 from 110 kJ·mol−1 H2 to 76 ± 5 kJ·mol−1 H2, according to the following reaction [45]:
4NaBH4 + 5Mg2NiH4 → 4NaH + 2MgNi2.5B2 + 8Mg + 16H2  4.5 wt%
As a consequence of this addition, the onset temperature of hydrogen desorption decreases from ca. 500 °C for NaBH4 to 360 °C for the NaBH4/Mg2NiH4 composite mixture. When Mg2FeH6 is added to NaBH4 the dehydrogenation can become quite complex [46]. A single dehydriding step is observed for xNaBH4 + (1 − x)Mg2FeH6 when x = 0.1 and 0.125, but a multi-step process occurs when x > 0.25. Despite the different dehydriding process, PXD measurements maintain that NaH and MgB2 are the dehydrogenation products over the entire composition range. The results also indicate that the dehydriding temperature of NaBH4 is reduced by at least 150 °C when combined with Mg2FeH6.
As a model borohydride-hydride system, the NaBH4-MgH2 combination has been investigated extensively. For 2NaBH4 + MgH2, the dehydrogenation temperature is reduced by ca. 40 °C compared to pure NaBH4 [41]. The desorption was originally proposed to follow a two-step process:
2NaBH4 + MgH2 → 2NaBH4 + Mg + H2
     → 2NaH + MgB2 + 4H2
The dehydriding mechanism of the 2NaBH4 + MgH2 system was subsequently suggested to proceed in three steps under 1 bar of inert gas, by: (i) the dehydrogenation of MgH2; (ii) the “disproportion” of NaBH4; and (iii) the reaction of an intermediate borohydride compound, such as Na2B12H12, with free Mg to give MgB2, NaH and hydrogen [42,47]:
2NaBH4 + MgH2 → Mg + H2 + 2NaBH4
    → 1/6Na2B12H12 + 5/3NaH + Mg + 19/6H2
     → 2NaH + MgB2 + 4H2
However, no direct observation of Na2B12H12 was made. When the reaction is performed under static vacuum, however, the dehydrogenation of 2NaBH4-MgH2 appears to follow an alternative pathway (Figure 5) [48]:
2NaBH4 + MgH2 → 2NaBH4 + 1/2MgH2 + 1/2Mg + 1/2H2
    → 3/2NaBH4 + 1/4MgB2 + 1/2NaH + 3/4Mg + 7/4H2
    → 2Na + B + 1/2Mg + 1/2MgB2 + 5H2
Figure 5. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) patterns of 2NaBH4-MgH2 with increasing temperature [48]. Reprinted from [48] with permission from the International Association of Hydrogen Energy.
Figure 5. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) patterns of 2NaBH4-MgH2 with increasing temperature [48]. Reprinted from [48] with permission from the International Association of Hydrogen Energy.
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The presence of the B12H122 anion was confirmed experimentally by solid state NMR. Amorphous Na2B12H12 was detected in a partially desorbed 2NaBH4 + MgH2 sample (following 2 h at 450 °C) and in the final products of the decomposition reaction by both direct comparison with the 11B{1H} NMR spectrum of pure Na2B12H12 and by dynamic cross-polarization experiments [28].
Considering now the reverse hydrogenation reaction in the Na-Mg-B-H system, it has been suggested that the hydrogenation of 2NaH-MgB2 proceeds according to the following reaction [41]:
2NaH + MgB2 + 4H2 → 2NaBH4 + MgH2
Further scrutiny of the process indicated that the absorption reaction does not occur in a single step. Nwakwuo et al. [49] and Pistidda et al. [50], respectively, characterized the uptake mechanism of ball-milled 2NaH-MgB2 by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ PXD. Under 50 bar of hydrogen, a new and unknown hydride phase was observed at ca. 280 °C. This phase remained present in diffraction patterns up to 325 °C followed by the formation of NaMgH3 at about 330 °C. At 380 °C, crystals of NaBH4 appeared and grew (Figure 6). The effect of the NaH:MgB2 ratio on hydrogen uptake in the system has since become evident [51]. Unlike the 2:1 NaH:MgB2 hydrogenation reaction, the only crystalline products of the hydrogenation of the 1:1 and 1:2 mixtures are NaBH4 and MgH2. Due to the reduced amount of NaH in the 1:2 system, the hydrogenation reaction proceeds towards the formation of NaBH4 and MgH2, completely consuming the NaMgH3 formed and avoiding the formation of a molten NaH-NaBH4 phase.
Figure 6. Scheme of the 2NaH + MgB2 absorption reaction performed under 50 bar H2 [50]. Reprinted with permission from [50], copyright 2010 The American Chemical Society.
Figure 6. Scheme of the 2NaH + MgB2 absorption reaction performed under 50 bar H2 [50]. Reprinted with permission from [50], copyright 2010 The American Chemical Society.
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NaBH4 can also be synthesized from NaH and MgB2 under hydrogen by mechanochemical methods, but only partial hydrogenation is observed [52]. Although the formation of NaBH4 was experimentally observed by ex-situ11B magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR under 1 bar of H2 with a milling speed of 300 rpm, even at 120 bar H2/550 rpm the yield of NaBH4 was only 14 wt% (by PXD). Moreover, IR spectroscopy confirmed MgH2 in the milling products.
Hence, the above examples demonstrate that the dehydrogenation thermodynamics of NaBH4 are significantly improved by adding MgH2 and that re-hydrogenation is possible. To obtain improvements in release kinetics and/or achieve dehydrogenation temperatures below 400 °C, approaches such as catalytic doping and nanoconfinement have been attempted for the Na-Mg-B-H system just as with NaBH4 itself. 5 mol% TiF3 doping reduces the dehydrogenation temperature of the 2NaBH4-MgH2 system by 100 °C [41]. Moreover, TiF3 doped 2NaBH4-MgH2 can be rehydrogenated up to 5.89 wt% hydrogen within 12 h at 600 °C and 4 MPa H2. NaBH4 and MgH2 are the clearly observed re-hydrogenation products by PXD. Of several other additives (fluorides, chlorides and hydroxides), the most promising would appear to be MgF2 [8]. The MgF2 reduces the NaBH4 decomposition temperature by 30 °C and the desorption enthalpy by 2 kJ·mol−1. The rate constant for desorption (fitted to a modified Avrami-Erofeev equation over the isothermal region) increases by a factor of 3.2 when MgF2 is added.
Perhaps rather unexpectedly, short-term exposure to a moist atmosphere appears to have a positive effect on the desorption reaction of the 2NaBH4 + MgH2 mixture [53]. The as-milled mixture desorbs 3.4 wt% of hydrogen at 450 °C, whereas 7.8 wt% of hydrogen is desorbed from the milled sample after 2 h of air exposure followed by drying. In this latter case, the final products are MgB2 and NaH (in addition to some NaOH) whereas in the former, partial dehydrogenation yields NaBH4 and Mg. Further investigation showed that the chemical state of the reactants is unchanged after exposure, but significant microstructural and morphological differences were revealed by Rietveld analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of the starting materials. It seems that the exposure of the 2:1 NaBH4:MgH2 system to moisture creates a scenario where the MgH2 remains solid whereas the NaBH4 forms a slurry that “wets” the surface of the MgH2 particles (protecting the MgH2 from reaction with air). The intimate interfacial contact is maintained in the solid state during the subsequent drying procedure facilitating dehydrogenation.
The effects of nanoconfinement have been evaluated against physically nanostructured mixtures by melt infiltration of NaBH4-MgH2 into mesoporous SBA-15 (NbF5 was used as a catalyst in both cases) [54]. The thermal desorption profile of 2NaBH4 + MgH2 shows two peaks at ca. 300 °C and 410 °C, respectively. When 0.05 mol of NbF5 is added, the desorption profile of the mixture displays three peaks centered at ca. 200 °C, 300 °C, and 400 °C, respectively. The comparison of the two traces suggests that the NbF5 additive actively alters the dehydrogenation process in the 2NaBH4 + MgH2 system. If the same hydrides are nanoconfined (2NaBH4 + MgH2 + 0.05 mol NbF5 confined into SBA-15), three desorption peaks occur at 134 °C, 323 °C and 354 °C, respectively. The changes in the desorption temperatures suggests that different reaction processes again occur in the nanoconfined-catalyzed material. Although Si-containing phases in the dehydrogenation product suggest that SBA-15 cannot be treated as an inert host, only hydrogen is observed as an evolved gas. The results indicate that favorable synergic effects between nanoconfinement and catalysis may exist for the Na-Mg-B-H system as have been observed for NaBH4 itself. The reasons for these phenomena require further investigation.

3.3.2. Fluoride Destabilization

Despite improvements in performance over pristine NaBH4, destabilized systems such as those in Section 3.3.1 have been unable to achieve gravimetric hydrogen capacities on a level with theoretical maxima. Given that the melting point of the decomposition product, Na, is ~371 K [55] and that molten Na may serve as an effective mass-transfer medium to promote atomic/ionic diffusion, one possible reason for this under-performance in the Na-Mg-B-H system is that a melting-induced phenomenon takes place during dehydrogenation. As a result, the local stoichiometry and homogeneity of the mixture may be disrupted, hindering rehydrogenation to NaBH4. Alternatively, hydrogen released during dehydrogenation may transport Na away from the reaction mixture in the liquid and/or vapor phase. To prevent such eventualities, Na may be confined to the solid state (together with boron) by using certain additives such as metal fluorides. On the one hand, boron, the decomposition product of NaBH4 can be stabilized by other metals to form borides while on the other, Na forms NaF with a significantly elevated melting point compared to Na metal (i.e., a more than 3-fold increase; 1263 K) [56].
In addition, and also important, the thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of NaBH4 dehydrogenation itself may be tuned through the substitution of fluorine for hydrogen since H and F have similar ionic radii [57]. For example, a recent study on the NaBH4–NaBF4 system showed that hydrogen–fluorine exchange took place in a temperature range of 200–215 °C, leading to a new rock salt-type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 [58]. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at 310 °C. In particular, the NaBH4–NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (T = 300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (T = 476 °C) and retains 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 6% for NaBH4.
Two new systems based on 2NaF + MgB2 + 0.05TiF3 (referred to here as the “Mg system”) and 2NaF + AlB2 + 0.05TiF3 (“Al system”) were investigated by employing a fluorine-hydrogen substitution strategy [59]. The hydrogenation of the Mg system yielded NaBH4 and MgF2, which can be dehydrogenated to NaMgF3 and MgB2. In contrast, the hydrogenation of the Al system yielded NaBH4 and Na3AlF6, which was dehydrogenated to NaF and AlB2. These processes are therefore reversible and compared to pure NaBH4 a significant kinetic and thermodynamic destabilisation with respect to the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation is achieved (Figure 7). The reversible hydrogen storage capacity reached 3.8 wt% and 2.5 wt% for the Mg and Al systems, respectively.
Figure 7. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation curves for the 2NaF–MgB2 (AlB2)–0.05TiF3 systems on cycling at 500 °C and 6 MPa hydrogen pressure [59]. Reproduced from [59] by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Figure 7. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation curves for the 2NaF–MgB2 (AlB2)–0.05TiF3 systems on cycling at 500 °C and 6 MPa hydrogen pressure [59]. Reproduced from [59] by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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Combining NaBH4 and ZnF2 generates hydrogen by forming NaBF4 with an onset temperature below 100 °C with favorable kinetics [60]. However, a small amount of B2H6 is released and the reversibility of the system is unknown. Studies of the effect of transition metal fluorides on the decomposition of NaBH4 by reacting NaBH4 with TiF3 mechanochemically, MnF3 or FeF3 revealed that NaBF4 was among the products in all cases [61]. Analysis of 11B-NMR spectra gave NaBF4:NaBH4 ratios of 1:150, 1:40 and 1:10 for the Ti-, Mn- and Fe-containing systems respectively. The hydrogen release in the NaBH4–MnF3 system began at 130 °C while FeF3 decreased the onset temperature to 161 °C and TiF3 to 200 °C. TiF3 reacted completely with NaBH4 below 320 °C. All these 3d transition metal fluoride containing materials display negligible emissions of diborane species.
Both dehydrogenation and hydrogenation can be improved by adding rare earth fluorides (LnF3, Ln = Nd, Y, La, Ho) [62,63,64,65]. The 3 NaBH4/LnF3 composites release hydrogen between 400 °C and 450 °C, which is lower than that of pure NaBH4. Approximately 3 wt% hydrogen can be cycled in these systems. By analogy to the destabilization mechanisms proposed for other metal fluoride “composite” systems, the improvement can be attributed to the formation of borides according to the following reactions:
LnF3 + 3NaBH4 → 3NaF + 3/xLnBx + (1 − 3/x)LnHy + (12 – y + 3y/x)/2H2
For example, dehydrogenation commences at 413 °C under 0.1 MPa Ar for the 3NaBH4/NdF3 system [62]. PXD revealed that NdB6, Nd2H5 and NaF formed on decomposition. The process is pseudo-reversible, producing NaBH4 and NaNdF4 on hydrogenation. Similarly, dehydrogenation of 3NaBH4/YF3 starts at 423 °C but with a higher mass loss of 4.12 wt% (given the lower atomic mass of Y over Nd) [63]. PXD of the dehydrogenated products reveals NaF, YB4 and YH2 are formed and re-hydrogenation leads to NaBH4 and NaYF4 by analogy to the neodymium system.
The above shows that the products from NaBH4 dehydrogenation can be stabilized simultaneously by introducing both fluorine and metals, hence effectively destabilizing NaBH4. Although the conditions required for dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation in these systems are still too extreme for practical applications, the improvement in uptake and release provides the basis for a broader destabilization strategy.

3.4. Chemical Modification

3.4.1. Combination of Protic and Hydridic H Atoms

It is well known that hydrogen exists in a partially negatively charged state (Hδ) in complex hydrides such as NaBH4, whereas it is partially positively charged (Hδ+) in nitrogen containing compounds such as LiNH2. Given the repulsive potential between two positively charged (Hδ+/Hδ+) or two negatively charged (Hδ/Hδ) species, there are relatively high energy barriers to the conversion of either Hδ or Hδ+ pairs to neutral H2. This contrasts markedly with the ease of combining Hδ− and Hδ+ [66]. These observations suggest that the reaction kinetics of H2 formation can be enhanced by inducing H+ and H mobility in compounds with suitable structures. Thus, it is of particular interest to consider the range of Hδ+-rich compounds that could be combined with NaBH4 to improve dehydrogenation.
Chater et al. [67] found a new cubic phase in the NaNH2–NaBH4 system with composition Na2BNH6 (a ≈ 4.7 Å) at 190 °C. Hydrogen release initiates at ca. 290 °C in Na2BNH6 and peaks at ~350 °C. Ammonia is also released, constituting approximately 7 wt% of the total desorbed gas. The decomposition products are reported to be NaH, Na and an amorphous unidentified white solid. In fact, Na2BNH6 releases hydrogen while molten between 300 °C and 400 °C yielding NaH, Na and a grey amorphous powder [68]. On addition of excess amide (≥2:1 NaNH2:NaBH4), Na3BN2 becomes the sole product.
Another new phase in the NaNH2–NaBH4 system, Na3(NH2)2BH4, is attainable by ball milling (at a molar ratio of 2:1) [69]. Thermal analysis shows that decomposition occurs in two main stages: (i) dehydrogenation below 400 °C to form Na3BN2 (6.85 wt%); and (ii) decomposition of Na3BN2 above 400 °C to produce Na, B, and N2 according to the following reactions:
Na3(NH2)2BH4 → Na3BN2 + 4H2 → 3Na + B + N2 + 4H2
Another example in terms of “protic” species that could be combined with borohydrides, is that of hydroxide. Drozd et al. [70] investigated the hydrogen-generating reaction between NaBH4 and Mg(OH)2, and found that reaction rate depends tremendously on the homogeneity and/or particle size of the reactants. PXD and Raman spectroscopy reveal that mechanically activated mixtures of NaBH4 and Mg(OH)2 react yielding MgO as the only crystalline phase between 240 °C and 318 °C. Ball milled NaBH4-2Mg(OH)2 mixtures release hydrogen in one exothermic reaction, with an onset temperature of 240 °C [71]. The estimated enthalpy for the reaction is 135.9 kJ·mol1 and the dehydrogenation products contain NaBO2 and MgO [70]. Therefore, the following dehydrogenation reaction was proposed:
NaBH4 + 2Mg(OH)2 → NaBO2 + 2MgO + 4H2 5.18 wt%; ΔH = −135.9 kJ·mol1
The various studies above show that the dehydrogenation of NaBH4 can be improved by reaction with Hδ+-containing starting materials (such as NaNH2 or Mg(OH)2) based on the premise of favorable H+-H interactions. However, the dehydrogenation reaction of these systems can be exothermic, which clearly introduces substantial challenges in terms of cycling or regeneration.

3.4.2. Bimetallic Borohydrides

Nakamori et al. [72,73] theoretically and experimentally found that a clear correlation exists between the thermodynamic stability of metal borohydrides and the Pauling electronegativity of the respective metal cations (Figure 8). It was thus proposed that the dehydrogenation temperature of M(BH4)n, where M is a metal cation of valence n, decreases linearly with the increasing electronegativity of M. Hence one of the approaches to adjust the dehydrogenation thermodynamics of metal borohydrides is to substitute an alkali or alkaline earth metal, for example, by another metal with higher electronegativity.
Figure 8. The dehydrogenation temperature, Td as a function of the Pauling electronegativity χp for selected metals. The inset shows the correlation between Td and estimated Hdes for the desorption reaction [73]. Reprinted with permission from [73], copyright 2007 Elsevier.
Figure 8. The dehydrogenation temperature, Td as a function of the Pauling electronegativity χp for selected metals. The inset shows the correlation between Td and estimated Hdes for the desorption reaction [73]. Reprinted with permission from [73], copyright 2007 Elsevier.
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NaK(BH4)2 was synthesized by mechanical milling of NaBH4 and KBH4 in a 1:1 ratio [74]. The new phase forms with a rhombohedral structure (tentatively space group R3), but in situ PXD indicated it was metastable, decomposing to the starting materials NaBH4 and KBH4 after 14 h at room temperature. A more common method for the synthesis of bimetallic sodium borohydrides is by solid or solution-state metathesis [75]:
xNaBH4 + MCly → NaxyM(BH4)x + yNaCl
where M is an alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal or lanthanide. For example, the new bimetallic borohydride NaSc(BH4)4 was synthesised by ball-milling mixtures of sodium borohydride and ScCl3 [76]. The structure of NaSc(BH4)4 (orthorhombic space group Cmcm a = 8.170(2) Å, b = 11.875(3) Å, c = 9.018(2) Å) consists of isolated scandium tetraborohydride tetrahedral anions, [Sc(BH4)4], located inside slightly distorted trigonal Na6 prisms (each second prism is empty) (Figure 9). Na+ is surrounded by six BH4 tetrahedra in almost regular octahedral coordination with a (6 + 12)-fold coordination of H to Na. NaSc(BH4)4 melts at ~137 °C subsequently releasing hydrogen in two steps between 167–217 °C and 222–267 °C. Scandium boride ScBx is tentatively identified as one of the decomposition products.
Figure 9. Crystal structure of NaSc(BH4)4 showing the coordination of Sc atoms (blue) by BH4 tetrahedra (red); Na atoms are in green [76]. Reprinted with permission from [76], copyright 2010 The American Chemical Society.
Figure 9. Crystal structure of NaSc(BH4)4 showing the coordination of Sc atoms (blue) by BH4 tetrahedra (red); Na atoms are in green [76]. Reprinted with permission from [76], copyright 2010 The American Chemical Society.
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NaZn(BH4)3 can be synthesized by ball milling NaBH4 and ZnCl2 in a 3:1 molar ratio and in fact if the starting ratios are varied (e.g., 2:1, 4:1) mixtures of NaZn2(BH4)5 and NaZn(BH4)3 are obtained, indicating competitive reactions [77]. NaZn(BH4)3 (monoclinic space group P21/c; Figure 10) consists of 1D anionic [{Zn(BH4)3}n]n chains with tetrahedrally coordinated Zn atoms, which are connected in three dimensions through the Na+ ions. NaZn2(BH4)5 meanwhile, is unstable and slowly decomposes to NaZn(BH4)3 at room temperature. The structure of NaZn2(BH4)5 (also monoclinic space group P21/c) consists of Na+ cations and isolated complex dimeric [Zn2(BH4)5] anions in which trigonal planar centers of Zn are each coordinated to one bridging and two terminal BH4 groups.
Figure 10. Crystal structure of NaZn(BH4)3; Zn atoms in blue, B in brown, Na in dark grey, and H in light grey [77]. Reprinted with permission from [77], copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 10. Crystal structure of NaZn(BH4)3; Zn atoms in blue, B in brown, Na in dark grey, and H in light grey [77]. Reprinted with permission from [77], copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons.
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Pure NaZn(BH4)3, synthesized by a solution route, releases hydrogen coupled with borane and diborane BH3, and B2H6, giving a total weight loss of 29 wt% between 80 °C and 200 °C [78]. Nanoconfinement of NaZn(BH4)3 in SBA-15 however leads to borane-free hydrogen evolution across a temperature range of 50–150 °C from onset to completion. The activation energy for dehydrogenation was reduced to 38.9 kJ·mol−1 in the nanoconfined solid; a reduction of 5.3 kJ·mol−1 compared to that of bulk NaZn(BH4)3.
The novel mixed-cation mixed-anion borohydride chloride, NaY(BH4)2Cl2 was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis from NaBH4-YCl3 mixtures followed by annealing (with Na3YCl6 and Na(BH4)1−xClx as impurity phases) [79]. The structure of NaY(BH4)2Cl2 is pseudo-orthorhombic (monoclinic space group P2/c) and isotypic with the high temperature polymorph of NaYCl4. The borohydride chloride is comprised of edge- and corner-sharing yttrium-centered and sodium-centered octahedra (Y is coordinated by four Cl and two BH4 ligands, whereas Na is coordinated by two Cl and four BH4 ligands; Figure 11).
Figure 11. Crystal structure of NaY(BH4)2Cl2 at T ~ 230 °C [79]. Reprinted from [79] with permission from the International Association of Hydrogen Energy.
Figure 11. Crystal structure of NaY(BH4)2Cl2 at T ~ 230 °C [79]. Reprinted from [79] with permission from the International Association of Hydrogen Energy.
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In situ synchrotron PXD studies show that NaY(BH4)2Cl2 decomposes to Na3YCl6 with amorphous yttrium borides the likely other products. The decomposition is an endothermic process that occurs at ca. 300 °C and the observed thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) mass losses suggest that no significant amount of diborane is released during the decomposition.
The thermal decomposition of ball milled mixtures of NaBH4 with the chlorides of the 3d transition metals and cadmium (M) has been systematically investigated (Table 2) [75]. In contrast to predictions from theory, which in many cases have suggested the formation of mixed metal borohydrides [80], all the above reactions involve the substitution of BH4 by Cl and the formation of cubic NaCl-type Na(BH4)1xClx solid solutions (with presumed amorphous transition metal borides as the other product in most cases). Samples containing Sc, Mn and Zn release <0.05 mol gas per mol of Na atoms during milling whereas the remainder of the 3d transition metal samples release ca. 1 mol of gas per mol of Na atoms with Fe- and Co-containing samples reaching maximum gas release most quickly (after 1 h).
Table 2. Structural and thermal decomposition parameters for ball milled NaBH4 + MCln powders (mixed in in 3:1 (MCl2) or 4:1 (MCl3) ratios). Note: the parameters for M = Sc were not reported [75]. Reprinted from [75] with permission from Elsevier; copyright 2012.
Table 2. Structural and thermal decomposition parameters for ball milled NaBH4 + MCln powders (mixed in in 3:1 (MCl2) or 4:1 (MCl3) ratios). Note: the parameters for M = Sc were not reported [75]. Reprinted from [75] with permission from Elsevier; copyright 2012.
Starting reagentsNa(BH4)1−xClx cell parameter, aCl content, xDecomposition T/°CMass loss at T ≤ 600 °C/wt%
NaCl only5.6400(5)1--
NaBH4 only6.13080(10)0--
In subsequent thermal desorption experiments, the maximum release temperature ranges from 103 °C (Zn) to 521 °C (Cd) and NaBH4–NaCl samples demonstrate decomposition at ca. 500 °C, similar to pure NaBH4. That Sc, Mn, and Zn form other stable compounds in addition to Na(BH4)1xClx (e.g., NaZn(BH4)3 which decomposes between 92 °C and 112 °C) explains the low decomposition temperatures observed (i.e., below 230 °C). In fact, the trends in decomposition temperatures can be related to these compounds and to kinetic effects rather than to a systematic destabilisation of the NaBH4 cubic structure. V, Ni and Ti, for example, form borides, which can act as catalysts whereas for Cu and Cd the high desorption temperatures would indicate the presence of metallic Cd and Cu, which have no beneficial effect on decomposition.

4. Closing Remarks

NaBH4 is undoubtedly a very interesting material for hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen density (10.6 wt%), low cost and relative air stability. However, the high dehydrogenation temperature, slow kinetics and poor reversibility are challenges that have to be overcome before the borohydride could be considered for practical applications. Several approaches to tackle both thermodynamic and kinetic issues have been employed ranging from catalysis through nano-engineering and additive destabilization to chemical modification. From the discussions in the sections above, it is apparent that each input can make a successful impact in terms of modifying thermodynamic stability, reducing dehydrogenation temperatures, improving equilibrium pressures, lowering activation energies or optimizing reversible capacity. While sorption kinetics can be enhanced, catalysis alone is not capable of altering the thermodynamics of uptake and release and hence reversibility. Various chemical destabilization, doping and “composite” approaches confront these issues via creating alternative reaction pathways for uptake and release. These strategies can either increase of decrease gravimetric capacity depending on the “activity” of the added components to making (and breaking) bonds with hydrogen. So-called nano-engineering methods such as nanoconfinement or the formation of core-shell nanostructures can combine the benefits of catalysis and chemical modification, but often to the detriment of gravimetric capacity. The benefits and drawbacks of each approach relative to the hydrogen storage performance of NaBH4 itself are summarized in Table 3.
Table 3. Comparison of materials modification approaches relative to NaBH4 itself (where “+” signifies an improvement and “−” signifies a decline).
Table 3. Comparison of materials modification approaches relative to NaBH4 itself (where “+” signifies an improvement and “−” signifies a decline).
StrategyTd aKineticswt% H2 bCyclabilityReferences
Catalytic doping+++[32,33]
H− destabilisation++++[27,41,42,43,44,45]
F− destabilisation+++[40,59,60,61,62,63,64,65]
Hδ+-Hδ− “composites”++[66,67,68,69,70,71]
Bimetallic Na borohydrides++[74,75,76,77,78,79,80]
a Dehydrogenation onset temperature; and b practically realizable gravimetric capacity.
Clearly, all these strategies demonstrably help overcome one or more of the limitations of pristine NaBH4 as a thermally-driven hydrogen store, but thus far, no modified materials can simultaneously meet all the major performance criteria required for mobile applications. The screening of more suitable catalysts and additives, developing new techniques to fabricate nanomaterials, discovering suitable lightweight mesoporous hosts, restricting loss of molten Na and greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in hydrogen release and uptake are some of the principal objectives towards making NaBH4-based systems viable. However, it may be a radically different approach in which NaBH4 is a component part that finally delivers a practical solution.


The research post for Jianfeng Mao has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) for the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative under Grant Agreement Number 303447.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Mao, J.; Gregory, D.H. Recent Advances in the Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Solid State Hydrogen Store. Energies 2015, 8, 430-453.

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Mao J, Gregory DH. Recent Advances in the Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Solid State Hydrogen Store. Energies. 2015; 8(1):430-453.

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Mao, Jianfeng, and Duncan H. Gregory. 2015. "Recent Advances in the Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Solid State Hydrogen Store" Energies 8, no. 1: 430-453.

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