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Energies 2013, 6(1), 220-234;

Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users

Facoltà di Ingegneria ed Architettura, Università di Enna "Kore", Cittadella Universitaria, Enna 94100, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale e dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, viale delle Scienze, Palermo 90128, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Buildings and Green Buildings)
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In systems experiencing water scarcity and consequent intermittent supply, users often adopt private tanks that collect water during service periods and supply users when the service is not available. The tank may be fed by gravity or by private pumping stations depending on the network pressure level. Once water resources are collected, the tank can supply users by gravity if it is located on the rooftop or by additional pumping if underground. Private tanks thus increase the energy cost of the water supply service for users by introducing several small pumping structures inside the network. The present paper aims to evaluate this users’ energy cost for different private tank configurations. A real case study was analysed, and the results showed that intermittent distribution causes inequalities not only in users’ access to water resource but also costs that users have to bear to have access to water. View Full-Text
Keywords: distribution networks; energy cost; intermittent supply; water scarcity distribution networks; energy cost; intermittent supply; water scarcity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Fontanazza, C.M.; Freni, G.; Loggia, G.L.; Notaro, V.; Puleo, V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies 2013, 6, 220-234.

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