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Article

Biomass Valorization of Walnut Shell for Liquefaction Efficiency

1
University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, 10410 Velika Gorica, Croatia
2
Department of Wood Technology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Storage and Transport, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Croatian Conservation Institute, Fakultetska 4, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dino Musmarra and Francesco Frusteri
Energies 2022, 15(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020495
Received: 3 December 2021 / Revised: 28 December 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 11 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crops for Biofuel Production)
Globally, lignocellulosic biomass has great potential for industrial production of materials and products, but this resource must be used in an environmentally friendly, socially acceptable and sustainable manner. Wood and agricultural residues such as walnut shells as lignocellulosic biomass are one of the most affordable and important renewable resources in the world, which can partially replace fossil resources. The overall objective of the research is to provide background information that supports new applications of walnut shells in a biorefinery context and to increase the economic value of these non-wood forest products. This paper presents the properties characterization of liquefied biomass according to their chemical composition. All results were compared to liquefied wood. In this study, the liquefaction properties of five different walnut shell particle sizes were determined using glycerol as the liquefaction reagent under defined reaction conditions. The liquefied biomass was characterized for properties such as percentage residue, degree of liquefaction, and hydroxyl OH numbers. The chemical composition of the same biomass was investigated for its influence on the liquefaction properties. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to determine the liquefaction properties of different particle sizes as a function of their chemical composition, also in comparison with the chemical composition of wood. The study revealed that walnut shell biomass can be effectively liquefied into glycerol using H2SO4 as the catalyst, with liquefaction efficiency ranging from 89.21 to 90.98%. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass liquefaction; biorefinery; hydroxyl number; lignocellulose biomass; liquefaction degree; residue percentage; walnut shell; wood liquefaction biomass liquefaction; biorefinery; hydroxyl number; lignocellulose biomass; liquefaction degree; residue percentage; walnut shell; wood liquefaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jovičić, N.; Antonović, A.; Matin, A.; Antolović, S.; Kalambura, S.; Krička, T. Biomass Valorization of Walnut Shell for Liquefaction Efficiency. Energies 2022, 15, 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020495

AMA Style

Jovičić N, Antonović A, Matin A, Antolović S, Kalambura S, Krička T. Biomass Valorization of Walnut Shell for Liquefaction Efficiency. Energies. 2022; 15(2):495. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020495

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jovičić, Nives, Alan Antonović, Ana Matin, Suzana Antolović, Sanja Kalambura, and Tajana Krička. 2022. "Biomass Valorization of Walnut Shell for Liquefaction Efficiency" Energies 15, no. 2: 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020495

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