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Catalytic Upgrading of Residual Fat Pyrolysis Vapors over Activated Carbon Pellets into Hydrocarbons-like Fuels in a Two-Stage Reactor: Analysis of Hydrocarbons Composition and Physical-Chemistry Properties

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Graduate Program of Natural Resources Engineering of Amazon, Campus Profissional-UFPA, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa N° 1, Belém 66075-110, Brazil
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Faculty of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Campus Profissional-UFPA, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Corrêa N° 1, Belém 66075-900, Brazil
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Graduate Program of Civil Engineering, Campus Profissional-UFPA, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa N° 1, Belém 66075-110, Brazil
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Graduate Program of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, Folha 31, Quadra 7, Lote Especial—Nova Marabá, CEP, Marabá 68507-590, Brazil
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Cursos de Engenharia Química, Mecânica e Elétrica, Centro Universitário Luterano de Manaus—CEULM/ULBRA, Avenida Carlos Drummond de Andrade N°. 1460, Manaus 69077-730, Brazil
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Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas-UEA, Avenida Darcy Vargas N°. 1200, Manaus 69050-020, Brazil
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Laboratory of Catalyst Preparation and Catalytic Cracking, Section of Chemical Engineering, Instituto Militar de Engenharia-IME, Praça General Tibúrcio N°. 80, Rio de Janeiro 22290-270, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Samira Lotfi, James Butler and Federico Galli
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4587; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134587
Received: 21 April 2022 / Revised: 22 May 2022 / Accepted: 26 May 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Waste as Feedstocks for Biofuel Production)
This work investigated the influence of the reaction time and catalyst-to-residual fat ratio by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value) and chemical composition of bio-oils, over a catalyst fixed-bed reactor of activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in semi-pilot scale. The experiments were carried out at 400 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a process schema consisting of a thermal cracking reactor of 2.0 L coupled to a catalyst fixed-bed reactor of 53 mL, without catalyst and using 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0% (wt.) activated carbon pellets impregnated with 10.0 M NaOH, in batch mode. Results show yields of bio-oil decreasing with increasing catalyst-to-tallow ratio. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, ring-containing alkanes, ring-containing alkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, and aldehydes). For all the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking experiments, the hydrocarbon selectivity in bio-oil increases with increasing reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area). View Full-Text
Keywords: residual fat; activated carbon pellets; chemical activation; thermal catalytic cracking; catalyst bed reactor; liquid hydrocarbons residual fat; activated carbon pellets; chemical activation; thermal catalytic cracking; catalyst bed reactor; liquid hydrocarbons
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bernar, L.P.; Ferreira, C.C.; Costa, A.F.d.F.; Ribeiro, H.J.d.S.; dos Santos, W.G.; Pereira, L.M.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, N.L.; Assunção, F.P.d.C.; Mota, S.A.P.d.; de Castro, D.A.R.; Santos, M.C.; Mendonça, N.M.; Duvoisin, S., Jr.; Borges, L.E.P.; Machado, N.T. Catalytic Upgrading of Residual Fat Pyrolysis Vapors over Activated Carbon Pellets into Hydrocarbons-like Fuels in a Two-Stage Reactor: Analysis of Hydrocarbons Composition and Physical-Chemistry Properties. Energies 2022, 15, 4587. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134587

AMA Style

Bernar LP, Ferreira CC, Costa AFdF, Ribeiro HJdS, dos Santos WG, Pereira LM, Pereira AM, Moraes NL, Assunção FPdC, Mota SAPd, de Castro DAR, Santos MC, Mendonça NM, Duvoisin S Jr., Borges LEP, Machado NT. Catalytic Upgrading of Residual Fat Pyrolysis Vapors over Activated Carbon Pellets into Hydrocarbons-like Fuels in a Two-Stage Reactor: Analysis of Hydrocarbons Composition and Physical-Chemistry Properties. Energies. 2022; 15(13):4587. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134587

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bernar, Lucas Pinto, Caio Campos Ferreira, Augusto Fernando de Freitas Costa, Haroldo Jorge da Silva Ribeiro, Wenderson Gomes dos Santos, Lia Martins Pereira, Anderson Mathias Pereira, Nathalia Lobato Moraes, Fernanda Paula da Costa Assunção, Sílvio Alex Pereira da Mota, Douglas Alberto Rocha de Castro, Marcelo Costa Santos, Neyson Martins Mendonça, Sergio Duvoisin Jr., Luiz Eduardo Pizarro Borges, and Nélio Teixeira Machado. 2022. "Catalytic Upgrading of Residual Fat Pyrolysis Vapors over Activated Carbon Pellets into Hydrocarbons-like Fuels in a Two-Stage Reactor: Analysis of Hydrocarbons Composition and Physical-Chemistry Properties" Energies 15, no. 13: 4587. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134587

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