Next Article in Journal
Capacity Sizing of Embedded Control Battery–Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System
Next Article in Special Issue
The Environmental Profile of Ethanol Derived from Sugarcane in Ecuador: A Life Cycle Assessment Including the Effect of Cogeneration of Electricity in a Sugar Industrial Complex
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Study and Modeling of the Effect of ESDD/NSDD on AC Flashover of SiR Outdoor Insulators
Previous Article in Special Issue
Electric Mobility in Portugal: Current Situation and Forecasts for Fuel Cell Vehicles
 
 
Article

Cascading Crypthecodinium cohnii Biorefinery: Global Warming Potential and Techno-Economic Assessment

1
Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1747-016 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), I.P.-Unidade de Bioenergia e Biorrefinarias, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisbon, Portugal
3
CERI Research Centre, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 001854 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Luna
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103784
Received: 18 March 2022 / Revised: 13 May 2022 / Accepted: 16 May 2022 / Published: 20 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Mobility and Energy Transitions 2021)
Prior to the commissioning of a new industrial biorefinery it is deemed necessary to evaluate if the new project will be beneficial or detrimental to climate change, one of the main drivers for the sustainable development goals (SDG) of the United Nations. In particular, how SDG 7, Clean and Efficient Energy, SDG 3, Good Health and Well Being, SDG 9, Industry Innovation and Infrastructure, and SDG 12, Responsible Production and Consumption, would engage in a new biorefinery design, beneficial to climate change, i.e., fostering SDG 13, Climate Action. This study uses life cycle assessment methodology (LCA) to delve in detail into the Global Warming Impact category, project scenario GHG savings, using a conventional and a dynamic emission flux approach until 2060 (30-year lifetime). Water, heat and electricity circularity are in place by using a water recirculation process and a combined heat and power unit (CHP). A new historical approach to derive low and higher-end commodity prices (chemicals, electricity, heat, jet/maritime fuel, DHA, N-fertilizer) is used for the calculation of the economic indicators: Return of investment (ROI) and inflation-adjusted return (IAR), based upon the consumer price index (CPI). Main conclusions are: supercritical fluid extraction is the hotspot of energy consumption; C. cohnii bio-oil without DHA has higher sulfur concentration than crude oil based jet fuel requiring desulfurization, however the sulfur levels are compatible with maritime fuels; starting its operation in 2030, by 2100 an overall GHG savings of 73% (conventional LCA approach) or 85% (dynamic LCA approach) is projected; economic feasibility for oil productivity and content of 0.14 g/L/h and 27% (w/w) oil content, respectively (of which 31% is DHA), occurs for DHA-cost 100 times higher than reference fish oil based DHA; however future genetic engineering achieving 0.4 g/L/h and 70% (w/w) oil content (of which 31% is DHA), reduces the threshold to 20 times higher cost than reference fish oil based DHA; N-fertilizer, district heating and jet fuel may have similar values then their fossil counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: DHA nutritional supplement; advanced fuel; district heating; N-fertilizer; water and energy circularity; conventional and dynamic LCA; net zero carbon electricity 2050 DHA nutritional supplement; advanced fuel; district heating; N-fertilizer; water and energy circularity; conventional and dynamic LCA; net zero carbon electricity 2050
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, C.; Moniz, P.; Oliveira, A.C.; Vercelli, S.; Reis, A.; da Silva, T.L. Cascading Crypthecodinium cohnii Biorefinery: Global Warming Potential and Techno-Economic Assessment. Energies 2022, 15, 3784. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103784

AMA Style

Silva C, Moniz P, Oliveira AC, Vercelli S, Reis A, da Silva TL. Cascading Crypthecodinium cohnii Biorefinery: Global Warming Potential and Techno-Economic Assessment. Energies. 2022; 15(10):3784. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103784

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Carla, Patricia Moniz, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Samuela Vercelli, Alberto Reis, and Teresa Lopes da Silva. 2022. "Cascading Crypthecodinium cohnii Biorefinery: Global Warming Potential and Techno-Economic Assessment" Energies 15, no. 10: 3784. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103784

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop