Goal 7 of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, adopted in 2015, sets out universal access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy, but even in developed countries, this is still difficult to achieve. European comparative studies show that in Mediterranean and Central European countries, including Hungary, access to adequate energy remains a serious problem for certain social groups. The aim of the study is to examine the inequalities in access to and consumption of energy in Hungary. We pay special attention to presenting changes over time and examine what changes have taken place in household energy consumption since the years before the global economic crisis. We also explore the major socio-economic and building-related factors that increase the risk of possible energy vulnerability. For our analysis, we draw on data from a large sample survey conducted in 2007, 2013 and 2018 on a representative probability sample. Our results showed on the one hand the fundamental role of different combinations of energy sources used by households in the intensity of energy consumption, and on the other hand that besides the characteristics of the property concerned, the energy use and behaviour patterns of households are determined by the socio-demographic characteristics of the household as well.
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