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A Decarbonization Roadmap for Singapore and Its Energy Policy Implications

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Federica Raganti, Paola Ammendola and Rocio Maceiras
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6455;
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 9 October 2021
As a signatory to the Paris Agreement, Singapore is committed to achieving net-zero carbon emissions in the second half of the century. In this paper, we propose a decarbonization roadmap for Singapore based on an analysis of Singapore’s energy landscape and a technology mapping exercise. This roadmap consists of four major components. The first component, which also underpins the other three components, is using centralized post-combustion carbon capture technology to capture and compress CO2 emitted from multiple industrial sources in Jurong Island. The captured CO2 is then transported by ship or an existing natural gas pipeline to a neighboring country, where it will be stored permanently in a subsurface reservoir. Important to the success of this first-of-a-kind cross-border carbon capture and storage (CCS) project is the establishment of a regional CCS corridor, which makes use of economies of scale to reduce the cost of CO2 capture, transport, and injection. The second component of the roadmap is the production of hydrogen in a methane steam reforming plant which is integrated with the carbon capture plant. The third component is the modernizing of the refining sector by introducing biorefineries, increasing output to petrochemical plants, and employing post-combustion carbon capture. The fourth component is refueling the transport sector by introducing electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, using biofuels for aviation and hydrogen for marine vessels. The implications of this roadmap on Singapore’s energy policies are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: decarbonization; roadmap; Singapore decarbonization; roadmap; Singapore
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lau, H.C.; Ramakrishna, S.; Zhang, K.; Hameed, M.Z.S. A Decarbonization Roadmap for Singapore and Its Energy Policy Implications. Energies 2021, 14, 6455.

AMA Style

Lau HC, Ramakrishna S, Zhang K, Hameed MZS. A Decarbonization Roadmap for Singapore and Its Energy Policy Implications. Energies. 2021; 14(20):6455.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lau, Hon C., Seeram Ramakrishna, Kai Zhang, and Mohamed Z.S. Hameed. 2021. "A Decarbonization Roadmap for Singapore and Its Energy Policy Implications" Energies 14, no. 20: 6455.

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