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Article

Comparative TCO Analysis of Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses for Public Transport System in Small to Midsize Cities

1
Institute of Energy Systems Technology (INES), Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Badstrasse 24, 77652 Offenburg, Germany
2
European Institute for Energy Research (EIFERI), Emmy-Noether-Str. 11, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
3
Regionalverband Mittlerer Oberrhein, Haus der Region, Baumeisterstraße 2, 76137 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James Trevor Hinkley
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4384; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144384
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 5 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
This paper shows the results of an in-depth techno-economic analysis of the public transport sector in a small to midsize city and its surrounding area. Public battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell buses are comparatively evaluated by means of a total cost of ownership (TCO) model building on historical data and a projection of market prices. Additionally, a structural analysis of the public transport system of a specific city is performed, assessing best fitting bus lines for the use of electric or hydrogen busses, which is supported by a brief acceptance evaluation of the local citizens. The TCO results for electric buses show a strong cost decrease until the year 2030, reaching 23.5% lower TCOs compared to the conventional diesel bus. The optimal electric bus charging system will be the opportunity (pantograph) charging infrastructure. However, the opportunity charging method is applicable under the assumption that several buses share the same station and there is a “hotspot” where as many as possible bus lines converge. In the case of electric buses for the year 2020, the parameter which influenced the most on the TCO was the battery cost, opposite to the year 2030 in where the bus body cost and fuel cost parameters are the ones that dominate the TCO, due to the learning rate of the batteries. For H2 buses, finding a hotspot is not crucial because they have a similar range to the diesel ones as well as a similar refueling time. H2 buses until 2030 still have 15.4% higher TCO than the diesel bus system. Considering the benefits of a hypothetical scaling-up effect of hydrogen infrastructures in the region, the hydrogen cost could drop to 5 €/kg. In this case, the overall TCO of the hydrogen solution would drop to a slightly lower TCO than the diesel solution in 2030. Therefore, hydrogen buses can be competitive in small to midsize cities, even with limited routes. For hydrogen buses, the bus body and fuel cost make up a large part of the TCO. Reducing the fuel cost will be an important aspect to reduce the total TCO of the hydrogen bus. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric bus; hydrogen bus; zero-emission buses (ZEB); city bus; public transport; total cost of ownership (TCO) electric bus; hydrogen bus; zero-emission buses (ZEB); city bus; public transport; total cost of ownership (TCO)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.; Hartmann, N.; Zeller, M.; Luise, R.; Soylu, T. Comparative TCO Analysis of Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses for Public Transport System in Small to Midsize Cities. Energies 2021, 14, 4384. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144384

AMA Style

Kim H, Hartmann N, Zeller M, Luise R, Soylu T. Comparative TCO Analysis of Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses for Public Transport System in Small to Midsize Cities. Energies. 2021; 14(14):4384. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Hanhee, Niklas Hartmann, Maxime Zeller, Renato Luise, and Tamer Soylu. 2021. "Comparative TCO Analysis of Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses for Public Transport System in Small to Midsize Cities" Energies 14, no. 14: 4384. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144384

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