# Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Ballen Marina on Samsø

## 3. Marina’s Demand Analysis

- Night valley: 21.00–6.00.
- Morning peak: 6.00–10.00.
- Noon valley: 10.00–15.00.
- Afternoon peak: 15.00–21.00.

- Pearson correlation coefficient r: statistical measure of the linear correlation between two data sets, in the range of $r\in \langle -1,1\rangle $. A value of $r=-1$ indicates perfect negative correlation, whereas $r=1$ signifies perfect positive correlation.
- p-value: probability of obtaining test results equal to or more extreme than the observed results. Very small p-values indicate that null hypothesis ${H}_{0}$ can be rejected. Typically, the null hypothesis is tested under the significance level of $\alpha =5\%$, leading to 95% confidence interval.

## 4. Electricity Pricing

#### 4.1. Hourly-Varying Tariff for Marina

#### 4.2. Time of Use Tariff for Sailors

- Green zone: 0.22 EUR/kWh, 21.00–6.00.
- Yellow zone: 0.34 EUR/kWh, 10.00–15.00.
- Red zone: 0.40 EUR/kWh, 6.00–10.00 and 15.00–21.00.

## 5. Modelling of Demand Response

## 6. Proposed Optimal Operation of Marina’s Energy System

- Base Scenario,
- Cost-Efficient Operation of BESS,
- Boat Flexibility and BESS,
- Late Summer and Late Autumns Seasons.

## 7. Results and Discussion

#### 7.1. Base Scenario

#### 7.2. Cost-Efficient Operation of BESS

#### 7.3. Boat Flexibility and BESS

#### 7.4. Late Summer and Late Autumn Seasons

- Late summer: 9–15 September 2019, low load (341 kWh) and high PV generation (1759 kWh).
- Late autumn: 21–27 October 2019, low load (324 kWh) and low PV generation (355 kWh).

## 8. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

BESS | Battery energy storage system |

CPP | Critical peak pricing |

DLC | Direct load control |

DR | Demand response |

DSM | Demand-side management |

EDR | Emergency demand response |

EMS | Energy management system |

ESS | Energy storage system |

EV | Electric vehicle |

ICES | Integrated community energy system |

PSO | Public Service Obligations |

PV | Photovoltaic |

RTP | Real-time pricing |

SOC | State of charge |

TOU | Time-of-use |

V2G | Vehicle-to-grid |

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Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Nominal PV plant power | 60 kWp |

Battery maximum power | 49 kW |

Battery capacity | 237 kWh |

Number of sockets for boats | 340 |

Maximum allowed import from grid | 86 kW ^{1} |

Maximum allowed export to grid | 49 kW |

^{1}The maximum load may be higher, being concurrently supplied by import from grid and battery action.

Parameter | Case | |
---|---|---|

Without DR | With DR | |

Shifted energy (kWh) | 0 | 347 |

Load factor (%) | 66.5 | 78.1 |

$\left(+17.4\%\right)$ | ||

Marina’s energy cost (EUR) | 1260 | 1258 |

$\left(-0.2\%\right)$ | ||

Sailors’ energy cost (EUR) | 2726 | 2668 |

$\left(-2.1\%\right)$ |

Parameter | Flexibility Factor (%) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 25 | 50 | 75 | 100 | |

Shifted energy (kWh) | 0 | 173 | 347 | 520 | 694 |

Load factor (%) | 66.5 | 71.8 | 78.1 | 82.3 | 83.9 |

$\left(+8.0\%\right)$ | $\left(+17.4\%\right)$ | $\left(+23.8\%\right)$ | $\left(+26.2\%\right)$ | ||

Marina’s energy cost (EUR) | 1260 | 1259 | 1258 | 1257 | 1256 |

$\left(-0.1\%\right)$ | $\left(-0.2\%\right)$ | $\left(-0.2\%\right)$ | $\left(-0.3\%\right)$ | ||

Sailors’ energy cost (EUR) | 2726 | 2697 | 2668 | 2639 | 2610 |

$\left(-1.1\%\right)$ | $\left(-2.1\%\right)$ | $\left(-3.2\%\right)$ | $\left(-4.3\%\right)$ |

Parameter | Case | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Baseline | DR | BESS | DR and BESS | |

Shifted energy (kWh) | 0 | 347 | 0 | 368 |

Energy import (kWh) | 6657 | 6657 | 6678 | 6671 |

$\left(+0.3\%\right)$ | $\left(+0.2\%\right)$ | |||

Load factor (%) | 66.5 | 78.1 | 66.5 | 78.3 |

$\left(+17.4\%\right)$ | $\left(+17.7\%\right)$ | |||

Marina’s energy cost (EUR) | 1260 | 1258 | 1259 | 1256 |

$\left(-0.2\%\right)$ | $\left(-0.1\%\right)$ | $\left(-0.3\%\right)$ | ||

Sailors’ energy cost (EUR) | 2726 | 2668 | 2726 | 2663 |

$\left(-2.1\%\right)$ | $\left(-2.3\%\right)$ |

Parameter | Late Summer | Late Autumn | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Baseline | DR and BESS | Baseline | DR and BESS | |

Shifted energy (kWh) | 0 | 18 | 0 | 15 |

Energy import (kWh) | 203 | 0 | 225 | 0 |

$\left(-100\%\right)$ | $\left(-100\%\right)$ | |||

Energy export (kWh) | 1621 | 1439 | 256 | 0 |

$\left(-11.2\%\right)$ | $\left(-100\%\right)$ | |||

Load factor (%) | 19.8 | 28.7 | 31.8 | 36.9 |

$\left(+44.9\%\right)$ | $\left(+16.0\%\right)$ | |||

Marina’s energy cost (EUR) | $-8$ | $-41$ | 34 | 0 |

$\left(-412.5\%\right)$ | $\left(-100\%\right)$ | |||

Sailors’ energy cost (EUR) | 111 | 108 | 107 | 105 |

$\left(-2.7\%\right)$ | $\left(-1.9\%\right)$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jozwiak, D.; Pillai, J.R.; Ponnaganti, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Jantzen, J.
Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems. *Energies* **2021**, *14*, 3397.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397

**AMA Style**

Jozwiak D, Pillai JR, Ponnaganti P, Bak-Jensen B, Jantzen J.
Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems. *Energies*. 2021; 14(12):3397.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jozwiak, Dawid, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna Pillai, Pavani Ponnaganti, Birgitte Bak-Jensen, and Jan Jantzen.
2021. "Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems" *Energies* 14, no. 12: 3397.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397