Next Article in Journal
An Explicit Fourth-Order Compact Numerical Scheme for Heat Transfer of Boundary Layer Flow
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparative Study of Pricing Mechanisms to Reduce Side-Payments in the Electricity Market: A Case Study for South Korea
 
 
Article

Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems

1
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
2
Samsø Energy Academy, 8305 Samsø, Denmark
3
Department of Financial and Management Engineering, University of the Aegean, 82100 Chios, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3397; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
Implementation of alternative energy supply solutions requires the broad involvement of local communities. Hence, smart energy solutions are primarily investigated on a local scale, resulting in integrated community energy systems (ICESs). Within this framework, the distributed generation can be optimally utilised, matching it with the local load via storage and demand response techniques. In this study, the boat demand flexibility in the Ballen marina on Samsø—a medium-sized Danish island—is analysed for improving the local grid operation. For this purpose, suitable electricity tariffs for the marina and sailors are developed based on the conducted demand analysis. The optimal scheduling of boats and battery energy storage system (BESS) is proposed, utilising mixed-integer linear programming. The marina’s grid-flexible operation is studied for three representative weeks—peak tourist season, late summer, and late autumn period—with the combinations of high/low load and photovoltaic (PV) generation. Several benefits of boat demand response have been identified, including cost savings for both the marina and sailors, along with a substantial increase in load factor. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm increases battery utilisation during summer, improving the marina’s cost efficiency. The cooperation of boat flexibility and BESS leads to improved grid operation of the marina, with profits for both involved parties. In the future, the marina’s demand flexibility could become an essential element of the local energy system, considering the possible increase in renewable generation capacity—in the form of PV units, wind turbines or wave energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated community energy system; smart grid; demand response; battery energy storage system; smart island energy system integrated community energy system; smart grid; demand response; battery energy storage system; smart island energy system
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jozwiak, D.; Pillai, J.R.; Ponnaganti, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Jantzen, J. Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems. Energies 2021, 14, 3397. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397

AMA Style

Jozwiak D, Pillai JR, Ponnaganti P, Bak-Jensen B, Jantzen J. Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems. Energies. 2021; 14(12):3397. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jozwiak, Dawid, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna Pillai, Pavani Ponnaganti, Birgitte Bak-Jensen, and Jan Jantzen. 2021. "Optimising Energy Flexibility of Boats in PV-BESS Based Marina Energy Systems" Energies 14, no. 12: 3397. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123397

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop