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Article

Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems

1
Department of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
2
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Electricity Infrastructure and Buildings Division, Richland, WA 99352, USA
3
Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
4
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Smart Grid Program, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and are listed alphabetically within each affiliation.
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 29 November 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
Renewable portfolio standards are targeting high levels of variable solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric distribution systems, which makes reliability more challenging to maintain for distribution system operators (DSOs). Distributed energy resources (DERs), including smart, connected appliances and PV inverters, represent responsive grid resources that can provide flexibility to support the DSO in actively managing their networks to facilitate reliability under extreme levels of solar PV. This flexibility can also be used to optimize system operations with respect to economic signals from wholesale energy and ancillary service markets. Here, we present a novel hierarchical scheme that actively controls behind-the-meter DERs to reliably manage each unbalanced distribution feeder and exploits the available flexibility to ensure reliable operation and economically optimizes the entire distribution network. Each layer of the scheme employs advanced optimization methods at different timescales to ensure that the system operates within both grid and device limits. The hierarchy is validated in a large-scale realistic simulation based on data from the industry. Simulation results show that coordination of flexibility improves both system reliability and economics, and enables greater penetration of solar PV. Discussion is also provided on the practical viability of the required communications and controls to implement the presented scheme within a large DSO. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed energy resources; smart loads; flexibility; distribution system operator; distribution network; optimal power flow; control; large scale; solar energy distributed energy resources; smart loads; flexibility; distribution system operator; distribution network; optimal power flow; control; large scale; solar energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almassalkhi, M.; Brahma, S.; Nazir, N.; Ossareh, H.; Racherla, P.; Kundu, S.; Nandanoori, S.P.; Ramachandran, T.; Singhal, A.; Gayme, D.; Ji, C.; Mallada, E.; Shen, Y.; You, P.; Anand, D. Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems. Energies 2020, 13, 6399. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399

AMA Style

Almassalkhi M, Brahma S, Nazir N, Ossareh H, Racherla P, Kundu S, Nandanoori SP, Ramachandran T, Singhal A, Gayme D, Ji C, Mallada E, Shen Y, You P, Anand D. Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems. Energies. 2020; 13(23):6399. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almassalkhi, Mads, Sarnaduti Brahma, Nawaf Nazir, Hamid Ossareh, Pavan Racherla, Soumya Kundu, Sai P. Nandanoori, Thiagarajan Ramachandran, Ankit Singhal, Dennice Gayme, Chengda Ji, Enrique Mallada, Yue Shen, Pengcheng You, and Dhananjay Anand. 2020. "Hierarchical, Grid-Aware, and Economically Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Realistic Distribution Systems" Energies 13, no. 23: 6399. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236399

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