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Technical Review of Existing Norwegian Pumped Storage Plants

1
Hydraulic Engineering Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7031 Trondheim, Norway
2
Sira-Kvina Hydropower Company, 4440 Tonstad, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184918
Received: 16 June 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 19 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section D: Energy Storage and Application)
This paper presents a technical review of the existing pumped storage plants in Norway. The power system is changing towards integrating more and more renewable energy, especially from variable renewable energy sources, leading to new challenges for the security of supply, power, frequency, and voltage regulation. Thus, energy storage options are a highly researched topic in the current situation. Even though there are many energy storage technologies, most are optimal for short term grid balancing, and few are capable of providing long term (weekly or seasonal) storage. One exception is pumped storage, a mature technology capable of delivering both short term and long term energy storage. In this paper, the ten existing pumped storage plants in Norway are presented, several of which are capable of seasonal energy storage. The Norwegian knowledge and experience with pumped storage plants technology is provided as a basis for future research within the field. The review provides information about energy production and storage capabilities, construction costs, specific costs per kW and stored kWh, electromechanical installation, technical specifications, and operational experience with focus on the design of the tunnel system layout. The data presented in this review are unique and previously unpublished. A discussion and conclusions regarding the current situation, trends, and future outlook for pumped storage plants in Norway within the European power market are provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydropower; pumped storage; hydropower tunnel systems; seasonal energy storage; renewable energy hydropower; pumped storage; hydropower tunnel systems; seasonal energy storage; renewable energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pitorac, L.; Vereide, K.; Lia, L. Technical Review of Existing Norwegian Pumped Storage Plants. Energies 2020, 13, 4918. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184918

AMA Style

Pitorac L, Vereide K, Lia L. Technical Review of Existing Norwegian Pumped Storage Plants. Energies. 2020; 13(18):4918. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184918

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pitorac, Livia, Kaspar Vereide, and Leif Lia. 2020. "Technical Review of Existing Norwegian Pumped Storage Plants" Energies 13, no. 18: 4918. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184918

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